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King Solomon's Mines Revisited
by William Minter. Basic Books, 1986.
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Note: This text comes from optical character recognition of the printed book, and may contain typographical errors. Corrections are welcome, and should be sent to africafocus@igc.org..

The historiography of southern Africa shows a succession of scholarly paradigms that have strong parallels, if not exact correlations, to the history in which the scholars themselves are embedded. The sequence is clearest in the case of South Africa, but can also be seen in studies dealing with other countries in the region. In shorthand labels, one may refer to the colonial or racialist paradigm, the liberal paradigm, and the Marxist or radical paradigm.

The racialist approach is exemplified in the numerous works of Theal (see the discussion in L. Thompson, 1985, chapters 2 and 3) and in a summary volume such as Walker, 1959 (first edition 1928). Africans appear as backdrop and obstacle to the history of white advance, a perspective that lives on in South African government propaganda and in popular literature, if less commonly in academic studies.

The liberal approach, illustrated by early works such as Macmillan (1929) and de Kiewiet (1941), reached its high point in the two-volume Oxford History of South Africa (Wilson and Thompson, 1969, 1971). Its theme, as the Oxford history editors put it, was "the interaction between peoples of diverse origins, languages, technologies and social systems" (Wilson and Thompson, 1969, p. v). Such an open-minded approach helped spur a proliferation of empirical research. Outside of South Africa, the liberal emphasis flowed into study of the roots of precolonial African cultures and of modern nationalism, represented in such synthetic works as Oliver and Fage (1962). For independent Africa, this trend in historical scholarship coincided with the heyday of the social-science "modernization" paradigm, which linked economic and political "development." In South Africa, where African nationalism met the apartheid state, the liberal paradigm seemed to have little explanation for the persistence of racialist views in a South Africa that was already well launched on its industrial takeoff.

To list all the sources consulted for this book would be impossibly lengthy. These comments do not provide a comprehensive bibliography of any topic, but are a guide for the interested reader as to where to begin. The character of the literature available differs significantly for the periods before and after 1960, depending in large part on the opportunity historians have had to analyze archival material. This guide reflects that division, but many works cited in each section deal with both time periods.

356 Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings

Radical critics, discontent with the liberal failure to see structure behind diversity, and with the simple juxtaposition of economic advance and political-cultural "irrationality," turned to Marxist perspectives. They sought to "reanalyze South African society and history in terms of class, capitalism and exploitation; to develop a class analysis of South Africa, and of the racial system in particular" (Johnstone, 1982, p. 9). Elsewhere on the continent, similar analytic impulses gained strength from the realization that African political independence did not necessarily mean changing the inherited political economy. The Marxists or radicals exhibited as great a diversity in methodology and detailed research as did those who clung to some form of the liberal paradigm. But they shared a concern to relate political and cultural developments to underlying economic structures and class forces.

Early critiques of liberal historiography can be found in Legassick (1972) and Atmore and Westlake (1972). Wright (1977) is a vigorous albeit superficial critique of the radical approach; Legassick (1980) and Johnstone (1982) respond to critiques and reflect on the debate. Clarke (1977) and articles in the Review of African Political Economy (7, 1976, and 11, 1979) are other important sources. For an entry to current research, the best sources are the introductory essays in Marks and Atmore (1980), Marks and Rathbone (1982), and Marks and Trapido (1986). These reflect the ongoing seminars on the Societies of Southern Africa in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries at the Institute for Commonwealth Studies, published annually in mimeographed form since 1970. The work of Charles van Onselen (1982) and others associated with the University of Witwatersrand History Workshops is one expression of a growing emphasis within the radical approach on history "from the bottom up," with increased attention to oral sources.

The power of Marxist approaches is revealed in the growing tendency for liberal scholars to take much of the terms of debate from their Marxist colleagues. Two notable recent examples include Yudelman (1983) and Lipton (1985). The debate, as it evolved and continues, can be best followed by tracking several key journals, such as African Affairs, Journal of Southern African Studies, Review of African Political Economy, and Journal of African History. Review essays discussing the historiography of other southern African countries include Phimister (1979) on Zimbabwe; Ranger (1977) on protest and resistance; Ranger (1978) and Cooper (1981) on peasants.

A recent survey text that both gives basic factual background and takes into account the new research is Parsons (1983). One can also measure the shift by comparing the two editions of Denoon et al. (1972, 1984). On South Africa only, Davenport (1977) is in the conventional liberal mold.

Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings 357

Magubane (1979) provides an overview from a Marxist perspective. Murray (1982) collects a number of the more important radical essays. L. Callinicos (1981, 1985) presents the radical view in a popularized format. Other sources useful for overview and bibliography on the region are Birmingham and Martin (1983) and the articles in the Cambridge History of Africa, volumes 6 through 8, and in Boahen (1985).


Imperialism and Conquest: A good overview of British imperialism is Porter (1975). Clarence-Smith (1979) refutes the idea that Portuguese colonialism was "uneconomic," and Pirio (1982) dissects the structure of Portuguese imperialism in the late nineteenth century. Detailed bibliographies on European conquest and administration can be found in Gann and Duignan (1969-1975) and in Gifford and Louis (1967).

This phase of European expansion has been the subject of inexhaustible scholarly and political debate. Lenin's Imperialism is still essential reading, although his arguments have often been misapplied by both enemies and friends (see Stokes, 1969). Two useful surveys of the literature are Stokes (1975) and Kennedy (1977). One of the clearest explanations of a Marxist analysis is chapter 1 in Wolff (1974). Other critical overviews can be found in Magdoff (1978), Mandel (1975), and Barratt Brown (1974).

The applicability of the general theories to southern Africa is discussed by Etherington (1982). The clearest analysis of the debate is found in Atmore and Marks (1975), Marks and Trapido (1979), and Marks (1982). Tracing the references in these articles will lead to most of the other important sources.

Mining and Its Impact: The survey of Katzenellenbogen (1969) covers the continent, and includes numerous statistical tables as well as bibliography. Lanning and Mueller (1979) also provide an overview, with a more contemporary focus. Other important sources include review essays by Perrings (1977) and Van-Helten (1980); books by Perrings (1979), Wilson (1972), and van Onselen (1976); and articles by Turrell (1982) and Richardson and Van-Helten (1982). Study of labor and the gold mines has by now become a growth industry; Yudelman (1983) and Jeeves (1985) are two recent examples. Although some of the details may have been superseded by later research, Johnstone (1976) still stands out for the clarity and cogency of its basic argument. Innes (1984), on the Oppenheimer interests, is also a well-done overview of the South African political economy. Two recent works of many on the copperbelt are Parpart (1983) and Mhone (1982).

358 Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings

Segregation and its Antecedents: Key early contributions to the debate include Trapido (1971); Wolpe (1972); Legassick ("Capital Accumulation and Violence," 1974). Lacey (1981) perceptively traces in detail the divergent and convergent interests of mineowners and white farmers in shaping the system.

Study of the impact of white rule on African farmers was sparked by the work of Bundy (1972, 1979). A good overview is Palmer and Parsons (1977); Palmer (1977) is the basic work on Rhodesia. Morris (1976) exemplifies a more theoretically oriented approach. Later research, questioning points of emphasis and chronology in Bundy's work, is also showing considerable local variation. No new synthesis has emerged, but see the ongoing debate in JSAS.

Several recent works have drawn attention to the U.S.-South African parallel. Frederickson (1981), perceptive on pre-nineteenth-century developments, is less well informed on the newer research dealing with the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Cell (1982) and Greenberg (1980) are well grounded in the South African debate, and their comparisons are thought-provoking. Burawoy (1976) relates the comparisons to sociological theories. Particularly useful review essays commenting on some of these studies include Bundy (1984) and Johnstone (1984).

Politics and Class in White Southern Africa: In spite of a tendency in both Marxist and non-Marxist research to overemphasize the structural impact of shifts in the white electoral arena, there has been much useful work on the ethnic and class divisions in white South Africa. Leading non-Marxist scholars who are reexploring Afrikaner history are du Toit and Giliomee (see, for example, du Toit, 1983, and Giliomee, 1983). De Villiers (1976) contains much useful information on English-speaking South Africans. Bozzoli (1981) on manufacturing and Davies (1979) on white workers are two representative Marxist works. On Rhodesia see Leys (1959) and Phimister (1983).

Resistance and Protest: On anti-imperialist and humanitarian protest in England see Porter (1968) and Price (1972). Representative works on resistance and protest include Shepperson and Price (1958), Ranger (1970), Isaacman (1976), Drechsler (1980), Simons and Simons (1969), Marks (1970), and Milan (1984).


Two general works, written during this period, with a wealth of infor- mation and critical perspective, are Gunther (1955) and Davidson (1952). Political Economy of Apartheid: Carter (1959) is a detailed political ac- count within a liberal perspective. Two crucial articles in the development

Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings 359

of a Marxist analysis are Legassick ("Legislation," 1974) and O'Meara (1975). Lipton (1985) gives the conclusions of a liberal scholar well informed on the debate. The Fagan commission report (Union of South Africa, 1948) is still worth reading for a picture of the "alternative" to apartheid; a systematic investigation of its significance and context is long overdue.

Foreign Investment: Much of the basic factual data on the South African economy can be found in Houghton (1973, 1976) and Nattrass (1981). Useful analyses of the role of foreign investment include Innes (1984), First et al. (1973), Study Project (1975), Rogers (1976), and Seidman and Makgetla (1980). On Rhodesia see Clarke (1980); on the Portuguese colonies, Castro (1978).

Afrikaner Nationalism and the National Party: The best study to date is O'Meara (1983). Adam and Giliomee (1979) is another basic work. See also Moodie (1975) for additional background on ideology, and Giliomee (1983) for a critique of O'Meara's Marxist approach.

Postwar Colonial Policy and Decolonization: A basic anthology with extensive bibliography is Gifford and Louis (1982). On Britain basic sources include Lee (1967), Goldsworthy (1971), Louis (1978). On Portugal see Clarence-Smith (1985), Minter (1972, 1973), and Bender and Isaacman (1976).

On Mau Mau and the Kenyan example, Buitenhuijs (1973), Wasserman (1976), Ranger (1985), and Gordon (1985) can serve as introduction to the voluminous literature. Clayton (1976) provides details on military aspects rarely mentioned elsewhere.


For the period since 1960, material relevant to Western involvement and to the overall evolution of southern Africa must generally be gleaned from a wide variety of sources dealing with particular countries or particular crises. Most studies deal with the "present" situation at the time of writing, with the past brought in more or less systematically as background.

The most common type of work dealing with the region as a whole is the anthology. Such anthologies, despite their uneven quality, are useful not only for facts and bibliography, but for revealing the range of perspectives of their authors. A representative selection would include Davis and Baker (1966), Pothoim and Dale (1972), Shaw and Heard (1977), Seiler (1980), Carter and O'Meara (1977, 1982a, 1982b), Clough and Ravenhill (1982), Callaghy (1983), and Aluko and Shaw (1985). The two Carter and O'Meara volumes for 1982 contain particularly useful bibliographies. Colin Legum's annual African Contemporary Record (ACR) is an invaluable source, particularly Legum's own essays on southern Africa.

360 Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings

Studies providing a regional overview include Hoagland (1972), Grundy (1973), Africa Research Group (1974), Davidson et al. (1976), Johnson (1977), and A. Callinicos (1977, 1981). C. Thompson (1985) systematically investigates the role of the Frontline States in the liberation of Zimbabwe. Johnson and Martin (1986) systematically describes South Africa's campaign against its neighbors in recent years.

Periodical sources I have found particularly useful include Southern Africa (New York, 1965-1983), Africa News (Durham, NC, 1973-present), Facts and Reports (Amsterdam, 1970- present), and Africa Report (New York, 1956-present). Publications of the International Defence and Aid Fund (London) and the South African Institute of Race Relations (Johannesburg) are among the most useful detailed reference sources.


Angola and Mozambique: The best short introductions to the collapse of Portuguese colonialism are Maxwell (1982) and Bender (1974). Minter (1972, 1973) gives an overview of the relations between Portugal and other Western countries. Clarence-Smith (1985) presents one scholar's view of recent research on Portuguese colonialism in Africa; the bibliographies in Gallagher (1983) and Bruneau (1984) include references to additional sources.

On Angola and Mozambique see the bibliographic essay by Bender and Isaacman (1976). The Angolan crisis is most perceptively analyzed by Heimer (1979); Klinghoffer (1980) gives a kaleidoscopic view of events; Marcum (1969, 1978) is an essential source of data. Other books to consult include Bender (1978), Stockwell (1978), and Wolfers and Bergerol (1983). Isaacman and Isaacman (1983) gives an overview of Mozambique. Focusing on the current period are Hanlon (1984) and the collection of analytic essays edited by Saul (1985).

Congo/Zaire: On the colonial context see the first part of Young (1965) and Merlier (1962). Of the abundant literature on the "Congo crisis" and its aftermath, Comite Zaire (1978), Gran (1979), and Huybrechts (1981) are good places to start. Mahoney (1980, 1983) and Kalb (1982), both with access to U.S. presidential archives, and Weissman (1974), still superior analytically, deal with foreign intervention. Two recent booksůmdash;Callaghy (1984) and Young and Turner (1985)ůmdash;analyze the postcolonial Zairian state but largely exclude the external role from their field of view. See also the recent collections of essays edited by Jewsiewicki (1984) and Nzongola-Ntalaja (1986).

Ex-British Colonies: See Barkan and Okumu (1979) for a comparative perspective and introduction to the voluminous literature on Kenya and

Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings 361

Tanzania. On Zambia see Gertzel et al. (1985) and Anglin and Shaw (1979). Williams (1978) gives an overview of Malawi. On the ex-High Commission territories Halpern (1965) is still a useful source on the colonial period. Parson (1984), Bardill and Cobbe (1985), and Booth (1983) are good recent surveys.

Rhodesia/Zimbabwe: Windrich (1978) is a good survey of negotiations for the period she covers. Martin and Johnson (1981) and Frederikse (1984) each provides much insight into the closing stage of the war. Ranger (1985) makes systematic comparisons with Kenya and Mozambique. Of the many books being written about the last days of Rhodesia, Caute (1983) is the view of an outsider skeptical about all sides. On the sanctions issue Strack (1978) provides much useful detail; Bailey (1979) tells the story of oil- sanctions busting, a factor which has yet to be fully assimilated into the wider discussion of sanctions.

South West Africa/Namibia: Dugard (1973) is the basic source on legal issues. SWAPO (1981) is an impressive overview; Ya-Otto (1981) a very revealing personal account. Other recent sources include Green et al. (1981) and Moleah (1983).

South Africa: Bibliographies covering some of the flood of writing on South Africa can be found in Adam (1971) and in Carter and O'Meara (1982a, 1982b). Recent journalistic introductions, each perceptive and well written, include Goodwin (1984), North (1985), and Lelyveld (1985). Davies et al. (1984) is a unique combination of analytic insight with essential background information. Recent analyses of the South African scene include, from a liberal perspective, de St. Jorre (1977), Adam and Giliomee (1979), and Price and Rosberg (1980); from a right-wing perspective, Gann and Duignan (1981). O'Meara (1984) and Saul and Gelb (1981) are the most compehensive Marxist analyses.

On South Africa's foreign and military policy, see Minty (1969), Barber (1973), and Nolutshungu (1975), and, more recently, Geldenhuys (1984), Leonard (1983), Frankel (1984), Davies and O'Meara (1985), and Grundy (1983).

The ANC News Briefing, summarizing the South African press, and the new Weekly Mail (Johannesburg) are indispensable current sources. Prom South Africa the periodical Work in Progress and the annual South African Review are vehicles for radical analyses; Die Suid-Afrikaan, an organ for the new "ultra-verligte" Afrikaners.


Great Britain: Austin (1966) and Barber (1982, 1983) provide much useful information and an establishment point of view. The annual sur-

362 Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings

veys in ACR are also essential sources. For a more critical point of view see First et al. (1973), Darnborough (1967), Labour Research Department (1970), and articles in the Anti-Apartheid Movement's Anti-Apartheid News. On the Rhodesian issue see the references above under Rhodesia/ Zimbabwe; on Portuguese colonialism, Minter (1972, 1973) and Committee for Freedom in Mozambique, Angola and Guide (1973).

United States: Three recent overview articles are Karis (1982), Rothchild and Ravenhill (1983), and Houser (1984). For the period before 1975 two sources with much useful detail are the dissertations by Lake (1974) and Seiler (1976). Noer (1985) is a solid study well grounded in, but also overdependent on, research in U.S. archives. Critical pamphlets for this period include Gonze et al. (1962), Africa Today (1970), and Houser (1974). Danaher (1982 dissertation, book version published 1985) provides much information as well as a critical Marxist analysis, concentrating on the period since 1974. In separate publications, Danaher has also supplied an annotated bibliography (1979) and a review of current arguments (1984). Bissell (1982) gives an alternative right-wing view of the Carter period; Duignan and Gann (1985), an overview from the right wing.

Anthologies that should be consulted include Arkhurst (1975), Whitaker (1978), Lemarchard (1981), and Bender et al. (1985). Books presenting overviews include McKay (1963), Hance (1968), and Nielsen (1965, 1969), all within a "liberal establishment" perspective. Jackson (1982) provides a liberal critique; Gann and Duignan (1981), a right-wing perspective.

In addition to books cited earlier, see Lake (1976) on the Rhodesian issue; on the United States and Portuguese colonialism, Mahoney (1983) and the forthcoming dissertation by Witney Schneidman; on Namibia, Cooper (1982). For more detailed research, there is ample additional material in congressional hearings, particularly those of the House Africa Subcommittee since 1969. The archival material available in the Kennedy and Johnson libraries has only been partially explored, and new State Department documentation is also becoming available.

For current information and criticism of U.S. policy see the publications of TransAfrica, the Washington Office on Africa, and the American Committee on Africa.

Other Countries: The surveys in ACR, covering major countries' relations with Africa each year and other countries on a less regular basis, are an essential resource. So are the documents produced by the UN's Centre against Apartheid. In addition to these and to the sources cited in footnotes in chapter 9, Barber (1983) has a useful appendix on French and German involvement.

Guide to Sources and Suggested Readings 363

For an entry to the literature on the Soviet Union and other Communist states, see Albright (1980) and (1982); on Cuba, LeoGrande (1980).


Literary Threads: On both Haggard and Buchan, the thought-provoking essays by Couzens (1974, 1978) relate literary analysis to the broader historical context. None of the other sources I have consulted is as incisive, but there is basic information on some of the authors I have quoted in Etherington (1984, on Haggard), Daniell (1975, on Buchan), Pearson (1966, on Fleming), Callan (1968, on Paton), and Becker (1983, on Michener). Maugham-Brown (1985) relates Ruark and other writers to the Kenyan social context.

"Establishment" Connections: The study of connections between leading sectors ("elites," "ruling classes") across national lines is often avoided by scholars fearful of being associated with "conspiracy" theories. Such ties, admittedly both variable and difficult to evaluate, may help supply the missing link between studies stressing structural relationships and those immersed in the details of policymaking. Among studies that have explored this territory see Kendle (1975), Nimocks (1968), Watt (1965), and Quigley (1981) on the Kindergarten group; Shoup and Minter (1977), Sklar (1980), and Sanders (1983) on the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission, and the Committee on the Present Danger; van der Pip (1984) on Atlantic unity. King (1971) and Berman (1983) deal with the role of U.S. foundations.

Minerals and Strategic Significance: In addition to the materials on mining cited above, Leith (1931) and Eckes (1979) take a global view. Lanning and Mueller (1979) provide essential data on Africa. Spence (1970) and Bowman (1982) are two clear discussions of the modern strategic debate. Hull (1981) examines right-wing views and data about southern Africa; see also sources cited in Africa News, October 13, 1980.

Sanctions and Divestment: The best recent statement of the case for sanctions is Catholic Institute of International Relations (1985), which contains extensive references to other sources. Litvak et al. (1978) and Clarke (1978) are well written and still relevant to the current debate. Hauck et al. (1983) provides an overview of the debate, and Love (1985) describes the divestment campaign in Michigan and Connecticut. Spandau (1979) and Sincere (1984) are two extended statements of the antisanctions position. Kitchen and Clough (1984) both describe and try to reinforce the still dominant "centrist" taboo against serious consideration of sanctions.


Commonly cited journals are abbreviated as follows: AA, African Affairs; AN, Africa News; JAH, Journal of African History; JSAS, Journal of Southern African Studies.

Adam, Heribert, ed. South Africa: The Limits of Reform Politics. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1983. Adam, Heribert, ed. South Africa: Sociological Perspectives. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Adam, Heribert, and Hermann Giliomee. Ethnic Power Mobilized: Can South Africa Change?, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979.

Africa Research Group. Race to Power: The Struggle for Southern Africa. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1974.

Africa Today. Apartheid and Imperialism: A Study of U.S. Corporate Involvement in South Africa. Denver: Africa Today, 1970.

Albright, David E., ed. Communism in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. Albright, David E. "The Communist States and Southern Africa." In International Politics in Southern Africa, edited by Gwendolen M. Carter and Patrick O'Meara, pp. 3-45. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.

Aluko, Olajide, and Timothy H. Shaw, eds. Southern Africa in the 1980s. London: Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Anglin, Douglas, and Timothy M. Shaw. Zambia's Foreign Policy: Studies in Diplomacy and Dependence. Boulder: Westview, 1979.

Arkhurst, Frederick S., ed. U.S. Policy Toward Africa. New York: Praeger, 1975.

Atmore, A., and N. Westlake. "A Liberal Dilemma: A Critique of the Oxford History of South Africa." Race 14:2 (1972): 107-36.

Atmore, A., and S. Marks. "The Imperial Factor in South Africa in the Nineteenth Century: Towards a Reassessment." In European Imperialism and the Partition of Africa, edited by E. F. Penrose, pp. 105-39. London: Frank Cass, 1975.

Austin, Dennis. Britain and South Africa. London: Oxford University Press, 1966. Bailey, Martin. Oilgate: The,Sanctions Scandal. London: Coronet, 1979.

Barber, James. South Africa's Foreign Policy, 1945-1970. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Barber, James. The Uneasy Relationship: Britain and South Africa. London: Heinemann, 1983. Barber, James, Jesmond Blumenfeld, and Christopher R. Hill. The West and South Africa. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.

Bardill, John E., and James H. Cobbe. Lesotho: Dilemmas of Dependence in Southern Africa. Boulder: Westview, 1985.

Barkan, Joel D., with John D. Okumu. Politics and Public Policy in Kenya and Tanzania. New York: Praeger, 1979.

Barratt Brown, Michael. The Economics of Imperialism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1974. Becker, George Joseph. James A. Michener. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1983.

Bender, Gerald. "Portugal and Her Colonies Join the Twentieth Century: Causes and Initial Implications of the Military Coup." Ufahamu 4:3 (Winter 1974): 121-62.

Bender, Gerald, and Allan Isaacman. "The Changing Historiography of Angola and Mozambique." In African Studies Since 1945: A Tribute to Basil Davidson, edited by Christopher Fyfe, pp. 220-248. London: Longman, 1976.

Bender, Gerald J. Angola under the Portuguese: The Myth and the Reality. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Bender, Gerald J., James S. Coleman, and Richard L. Sklar, eds. African Crisis Areas and U.S. Foreign Policy. Berkeley: Universityof California Press, 1985.

Berman, Edward H. The Ideology of Philanthropy: The Influence of the Carnegie, Ford and Rockefeller Foundations on American Foreign Policy. Albany: SUNY Press, 1983.

Sources and Suggested Readings 365

Birmingham David, and Phyllis M. Martin, eds. History of Central Africa, vol. 2. London: Longman, 1983.

Bissell, Richard E. South Africa and the United States: the Erosion of an Influence Relationship. New York: Praeger, 1982.

Boahen, A. Adu, ed. General History of Africa, Volume VII: Africa Under Colonial Domination, 18804935. London: Heinemann, 1985.

Booth, Alan R. Swaziland: Tradition and Change in a Southern African Kingdom. Boulder: Westview, 1983.

Bowman, Larry W. "The Subordinate State System of Southern Africa." In Shaw and Heard, 1977.16-43.

Bowman, Larry W. "The Strategic Significance of South Africa to the United States: An Appraisal and Policy Analysis." AA 81 (1982): 159-91.

Bozzoli, Belinda, The Political Nature of a Ruling Class: Capital and Ideology in South Africa, 1890-1933. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981.

Bruneau, Thomas G. Politics and Nationhood: Post-Revolutionary Portugal. New York: Praeger, 1984.

Buitenhuijs, Robert. Mau Mau Twenty Years After: The Myth and the Survivors. The Hague: Mouton, 1973.

Bundy, Colin. "The Emergence and Decline of a South African Peasantry." AA 71 (1972): 369-88.

Bundy, Colin. The Rise and Fall of the South African Peasantry. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

Bundy, Colin. "South Africa's American Analogues." JAH 25 (1984): 97-101.

Burawoy, Michael. "The Functions and Reproduction of Migrant Labor: Comparative Material from Southern Africa and the United States," American Journal of Sociology 81:5 (March 1976): 1050-87.

Callaghy, Thomas M., ed. South Africa in Southern Africa: The Intensifying Vortex of Violence. New York: Praeger, 1983.

Callaghy, Thomas M. The State-Society Struggle: Zaire in Comparative Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984,

Callan, Edward. Alan Paton. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1968.

Callinicos, Alex, and John Rogers. Southern Africa after Soweto. London: Pluto Press, 1977. Callinicos, Alex. Southern Africa after Zimbabwe. London: Pluto Press, 1981.

Callinicos, Luli. Gold and Workers: A People's History of South Africa, vol. I. Johannesburg: Ravan, 1981.

Callinicos, Luli. Workers on the Rand: Factories, Townships and Popular Culture, 1886-1942, A People's History of South Africa, vol. II. Johannesburg: Ravan, 1985.

Carter, Gwendolen. The Politics of Inequality: South Africa since 1948. New York: Praeger, 1959.

Carter, Gwendolen, and Patrick O'Meara, eds. Southern Africa in Crisis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.

Carter, Gwendolen, and Patrick O'Meara, eds. Southern Africa: The Continuing Crisis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982a.

Carter, Gwendolen M., and Patrick O'Meara, eds. International Politics in Southern Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982b.

Castro, Armando. 0 Sistemo Colonial Portuguęs em Africa (meados do siculo XX). Lisbon: Editorial Caminho, 1978.

Catholic Institute for International Relations. Sanctions against South Africa. London: CIIR, 1985.

Caute, David. Under the Skin: The Death of White Rhodesia. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1983.

Cell, John W. The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Clarence-Smith, Gervase. The Third Portuguese Empire, 1825-1975: A Study in Economic Imperialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985.

Clarence-Smith, W. G. "The Myth of Uneconomic Imperialism: the Portuguese in Angola, 1836-1926." JSAS 5:2 (April 1979): 165-80.

Clarke, D. G. Foreign Companies and International Investment in Zimbabwe. London: CIIR, 1980.

366 Sources and Suggested Readings

Clarke, Simon. "Capital, 'Fractions' of Capital and the State: 'Neo-Marxist' Analyses of the South African State." Capital and Class (1977): 32-77.

Clarke, Simon. Changing Patterns of International Investment in South Africa and the Disinvestment Campaign. London: Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1978.

Clayton, Anthony. Counter-insurgency in Kenya, 1952-1960: A Study of Military Operations against Mau Mau. Nairobi: Transafrica Publishers, 1976.

Clough, Michael, and John Ravenhill, eds. Changing Realities in Southern Africa. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, 1982.

Comite Zaire. Zaire: Le Dossier de la Recolonisation. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1978.

Committee for Freedom in Mozambique, Angola and Guine. Partners in Crime: The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance Past and Present. London: MAGIC, 1973.

Cooper, Allan D. U.S. Economic Power and Political Influence in Namibia, 1700-1982. Boulder: Westview, 1982.

Cooper, Frederick. "Peasants, Capitalists and Historians: Review Article." JSAS 7:2 (April, 1981): 284-314,

Couzens, T. J. "Literature and Ideology: The Patterson Embassy to Lobengula." hi Seminar Papers on the Societies of Southern Africa in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, vol. 5, pp. 16-27. London: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 1974.

Couzens, T. J. " 'The Old Africa of a Boy's Dream': Toward Interpreting Prester John." Johannesburg: seminar paper, 1978.

Danaher, Kevin. South Africa and the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Policy Studies, 1979.

Danaher, Kevin. The Political Economy of U.S. Policy Toward South Africa. Ph.D. Diss.: University of California, Santa Cruz, 1982.

Danaher, Kevin. In Whose Interest? A Guide to U.S.-South Africa Relations. Washington: Institute for Policy Studies, 1984.

Danaher, Kevin. The Political Economy of U.S. Policy Toward South Africa. Boulder: Westview, 1985.

Daniell, Davied. The Interpreter's House: A Critical Assessment of John Buchan. London: Nelson, 1975.

Darnborough, Anne. Labour's Record on Southern Africa: An Examination of Attitudes before October 1964 and Actions Since. London: Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1967.

Davenport, T. R. H. South Africa: A Modern History. London: Macmillan, 1977.

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Chapter 1

1. Quoted in A. Atmore and S. Marks, "The Imperial Factor in South Africa in the Nineteenth Century: Towards a Reassessment," in European Imperialism and the Partition of Africa, ed. E. F. Penrose (London: Frank Cass, 1975), 125.
2. John Flint, Cecil Rhodes (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1974), 169.
3. J. A. Hobson, The War in South Africa: Its Causes and Effects (London: James Nisbet & Co., 1900), 230.
4. J. S. Marais, The Fall of Kruger's Republic (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961), 327.
5. Leonard Barnes, The New Boer War (London: Hogarth Press, 1932), 228.
6. Sidney Olivier, White Capital and Coloured Labour (London: Independent Labour Party, 1906), 96.
7. Cecil Headlam, ed., The Milner Papers (London: Cassell & Company, 1931), 313.
8. P. Rich, "The Agrarian Counter-Revolution in the Transvaal and the Origins of Segregation, 1902-1913," in Working Papers in Southern African Studies, ed. P. L. Bonner (Johannesburg: African Studies Institute, 1977), 82.
9. Ibid., 88.
10. Ibid., 89.
11. Lionel Curtis, With Milner in South Africa (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1951), 341.
12. Shula Marks and Anthony Atmore, "Firearms in Southern Africa: A Survey," Journal of African History 12:4 (1971): 528.
13. Martin Chanock, Britain, Rhodesia, and South Africa, 1900-1945 (Totowa, N.J.: Frank Cass, 1977), 19.

Chapter 2

1. Theodore C. Sorensen, Kennedy (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), 14; and Davied Daniell, The Interpreter's House: A Critical Assessment of John Buchan (London: Thomas Nelson, 1975), 197,
2, John Buchan, Pilgrim's Way (Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1940), 121. 3. John Flint, Cecil Rhodes (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1974), 249.
4, John E. Kendle, The Round Table Movement and Imperial Union (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975), 253.
5. Philip Kerr, in Kendle, Round Table Movement, 255.
6. Dougal Malcolm, in B. K. Long, In Smuts's Camp (London: Oxford University Press, 1945), xi.
7. L. S. Amery, My Political Life (London: Hutchinson, 1953), 318.
8. Maryna Fraser and Alan Jeeves, eds., All That Glitters: Selected Correspondence of Lionel Phillips, 1890-1924 (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1977), 355.
9. Long, In Smuts's Camp, 35.
10. In W. K. Hancock, Smuts: The Fields of Force, 1919-1950 (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1968), 100.
11. J. C. Smuts, Africa and Some World Problems, Including the Rhodes Memorial Lectures, 1929 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930), 30-31.
12. Ibid., 47.
13. Ibid., 87.
14. Ibid., 100.
15. Basil Williams, ed., The Selbourne Memorandum (London: Oxford University Press, 1925), 145.

374 Notes

16, L. S. Amery, South Africa and the Empire: Four Speeches Delivered during His Visit to South Africa, 1927 (South Africa: Central News Agency, 1927), 53.
17. Lourenco Marques, Guardian, 5 Dec. 1922. Quoted in H. L. Vail and L. White, Capitalism and Colonialism in Mozambique: A Study of Quelimane District (London: Heinemann, 1980), 7.
18. O'Dowd, in Andre de Villiers, ed., English-speaking South Africa Today (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1976), 144.
19. Anthony Hocking, Oppenheimer and Son (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973), 140.
20. Colin Bundy, The Rise and Fall of the South African Peasantry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 234.
21. R. H. Brand, War and National Finance (London: Edward Arnold & Co., 1921), 245.
22. A. J. Bruwer, South Africa: A Case for a National Gold and Banking Policy (Cape Town: H.A.U.N., 1958).
23. See W. K. Hancock, Problems of Nationality, 1918-1936, vol. 1 of Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs (London: Oxford University Press, 1937), 275-77.
24. Amery, Four Speeches, 37.
25. Carnegie Commission, Rural Impoverishment and Rural Exodus, vol. 1 of The Poor White Problem in South Africa (Stellenbosch: Pro Ecclesia Drukkery, 1932), 10.
26. C. W. de Kiewiet, A History of South Africa: Social and Economic (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1941), 181.
27. Carnegie Commission, Rural Impoverishment, xix.
28. Oswald Pirow, James Barry Munnik Hertzog (Cape Town: Howard Timmins, 1958), 192.
29. In Brian Willan, "The Anti-Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society and the South African Natives' Land Act of 1913," Journal of African History 20:1 (1979): 83.
30. Ray E. Phillips, The Bantu Are Coming: Phases of South Africa's Race Problem (New York: Richard R. Smith, 1930), 83.
31. Ibid., 7-8.
32. Leonard Barnes, Caliban in Africa (London: Victor Gollancz, 1930), 212.
33. W. M. Macmillan, Bantu, Boer, and Briton: The Making of the South African Native Problem (London: Faber & Gwyer, 1929), viii.
34. Jan H. Hofmeyr, South Africa (London: Ernest Benn Ltd., 1931), 319-22.
35. J. H. Oldham, White and Black in Africa: A Critical Examination of the Rhodes Lectures of General Smuts (London: Longman, Green and Co., 1930), 184.
36. See Bernard Porter, The Lion's Share (London: Longman, 1975), 278.
37. Robert I. Rotberg, The Rise of Nationalism in Central Africa: The Making of Malawi and Zambia, 1873-1964 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965), 117.
38. Vail, in Robin Palmer and Neil Parsons, eds., The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 375.
39. Mondlane, in John A. Davis and James K. Baker, eds., Southern Africa in Transition (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), 201.
40. Leroy Vail and Landeg White, Capitalism and Colonialism in Mozambique (London: Heinemann, 1980), 361.
41. Peemans, in Lewis H. Gann and Peter Duignan, eds., Colonialism in Africa: The Economics of Colonialism, vol. 4. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), 181. 42, A.ňT, Nzula, Forced Labour in Colonial Africa (London: Zed Press, 1971), 108-13.
43. Terence Ranger, The African Voice in Southern Rhodesia, 1898-1930 (Evanston, III.: Northwestern University Press, 1970), 88.
44. J. Merle Davis, Modern Industry and the African (London: Frank Cass & Co., 1933), 357.
45. Colin Leys, Underdevelopment in Kenya: The Political Economy of Neo-Colonialism, 1964-1971 (London: Heinemann, 1975), 30.
46. James Kenneth King, Pan-Africanism and Education: A Study of Race, Philanthropy, and Education in the Southern States and East Africa (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), 101.

Chapter 3

1, Anthony Hocking, Oppenheimer and Son (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973), 408-10.
2. Duncan Innes, Anglo American and the Rise of Modern South Africa (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984), 361.

Notes 375

3. John Blashill, "The Proper Role of U.S. Corporations in South Africa," Fortune (July 1972): 49.
4. Centre Europe-Tiers Monde, White Migration to Southern Africa (Geneva: CETIM, 1975), 56-57.
5. Ernest Oppenheimer, Mining Finance in Southern Africa (Johannesburg: Anglo American Corporation, 1954),
6. S. Herbert Frankel, Capital Investment in Africa: Its Course and Effects (London: Oxford University Press, 1938), 89,93.
7. Leo Katzen, Gold and the South African Economy (Cape Town: A. A. Balkema, 1964), 40-41.
8. Innes, Anglo American, 142-75.
9. Alphaeus Hunton, Decision in Africa: Sources of Current Conflict (New York: International Publishers, 1960), 124; and U.S. Department of Commerce, Investment in Union of South Africa: Conditions and Outlook for United States Investors (Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1954), 86.
10. J. Forbes Munro, Africa and the International Economy, 1800-1960 (London: J. M. Dent, 1976), appendix I, 179.
11. Giovanni Arrighi, The Political Economy of Rhodesia (The Hague: Mouton, 1967), 44.
12. Larry W. Bowman, Politics in Rhodesia: White Power in an African State (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973), 13.
13. Colin Leys, European Politics in Southern Rhodesia (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959), 75.
14. Colin Stoneman, "Foreign Capital and the Reconstruction of Zimbabwe," Review of African Political Economy 11 (1978): 64.
15. Gervase Clarence-Smith, The Third Portuguese Empire, 1825-1975: A Study in Economic Imperialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985), 178.
16. D. Hobart Houghton, The South African Economy (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1973), 125.
17. A. R. Conan, The Changing Pattern of International Investment in Selected Sterling Countries (Princeton: Dept. of Economics and Sociology, 1956), 4-6.
18. W. B. Reddaway, Effects of UK Direct Investment Overseas: Final Report (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), 209-10.
19. Michael Barratt Brown, After Imperialism (London: Heinemann, 1970), 283.
20. Calculated from tables in James W, Vaupel and Joan P. Curhan, The World's Multinational Enterprises (Boston: Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1973).
21. Ernest Mandel, Late Capitalism (London: Verso, 1975), 335.
22. John H. Dunning, "Changes in the Level and Structure of International Production: The Last One Hundred Years," in The Growth of International Business, ed. Mark Casson (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983), 87.
23. See Thomas J. Noer, Britain, Boer, and Yankee: The United States and South Africa, 1870-1914 (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1978).
24. U.S. Department of Commerce, Investment in Union of South Africa: Conditions and Outlook for United States Investors (Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1954), 60; and Ward Anthony Spooner, United States Policy toward South Africa, 1919-1941, Political and Economic Aspects (Ph.D. diss., St. John's University, 1979).
25. U.S. Department of Commerce, Investment, 26.
26. Ibid., 1.
27. United Kingdom Trade Commissioners, Union of South Africa: Economic and Commercial Conditions (London: H.M.S.O., 1954), 116.
28. Houghton, in Monica Wilson and Leonard Thompson, South Africa, 1870-1966, vol. 2 of The Oxford History of South Africa (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), 34.
29, Houghton, South African Economy, 125.
30. Dan O'Meara, "The 1946 African Mine Workers' Strike and the Political Economy of South Africa," Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 13:2 (1975): 151; and Charles Simkins, "Agricultural Production in the African Reserves," Journal of Southern African Studies 7:2 (April 1981): 264.
31. Quoted in Martin Leggasick, "Legislation, Ideology, and Economy in Post-1948 South Africa," Journal of Southern African Studies 1:1 (October 1974), 8.
32. O'Meara, "The 1946 African Mine Workers' Strike," 163.
33. H. F. Oppenheimer, "Towards Racial Harmony," Optima (September 1956): supplement.

376 Notes

34. Union of South Africa Department of Native Affairs, Report of the Native Laws Commission, 1946-1948 [Fagan Commission) (Pretoria: Government Printer, 1948), 18.
35. Ibid., 27.
36. Hocking, Oppenheimer and Son, 306-8.
37. Merle Lipton, Capitalism and Apartheid: South Africa, 1910-84 (Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld, 1985), 388; see also Francis Wilson, Labour in the South African Gold Mines (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).
38. O'Meara, "The 1946 African Mine Workers' Strike," 154.
39. Stanley B. Greenberg, Race and State in Capitalist Development: Comparative Perspectives (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 64.
40. Innes, Anglo American, 169.
41. Centre Europe Tiers-Monde, White Migration, 56-57.
42. The basic source used for this section is Dan O'Meara, Volkskapitalisme: Class, Capital, and Ideology in the Development of Afrikaner Nationalism, 1934-1948 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). Other sources include C. G. W. Schumann, Die Ekonomiese Posisie van die Afrikaner (Bloemfontein: Nasionale Pers, 1940); Heribert Adam and Hermann Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized: Can South Africa Change? (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979); and Hermann Giliomee, "Constructing Afrikaner Nationalism," in South Africa: The Limits of Reform Politics, ed. Heribert Adam, 83-98 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1983).
43. H. G. Stoker, Koers, December 1942, quoted in O'Meara, Volkskapitalisme, 73.
44. Adam and Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized, 157; and O'Meara, Volkskapitalisme.
45. O'Meara, Volkskapitalisme, 12.
46. Ibid., 82.
47. Ibid., 94.
48. Ibid., 169.
49. Rob Davies, Dan O'Meara, and Sipho Dlarnini, The Struggle for South Africa: A Reference Guide to Movements, Organizations, and Institutions (London: Zed Press, 1984); and O'Meara, Volkskapitalisme, 200.
50. O'Meara, Volkskapitalisme, 187.
51. Ibid., 237.
52. On lusotropicalism, see especially Gerald J. Bender, Angola under the Portuguese: The Myth and the Reality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), chapter 1. The rest of the book contrasts the theory with the reality in Angola.
53. "A Rhodesian," quoted in Colin Leys, European Politics in Southern Rhodesia (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959), 245.
54. Oppenheimer, Mining Finance.
55. Leys, European Politics, 31.
56. Peter Harris, "Industrial Workers in Rhodesia, 1946-1972," Journal of Southern African Studies 1:2 (April 1975): 144.
57. Adam and Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized, 173.
58. Houghton, South African Economy, 3d ed., 168.
59. Ibid., 271.
60. Study Project on External Investment in South Africa arid Namibia, Foreign Investment in South Africa: The Economic Factor (Uppsala: Africa Publications Trust, 1975), 181.
61. Survey of Current Business, August 1962.
62. Barratt Brown, After Imperialism, 256.

Chapter 4

1. Alan Paton, Hofmeyr (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), 437.
2, Alan Paton, Knocking on the Door (New York: Charles Scribner's, 1975), 241.
3. Thomas J. Noer, Britain, Boer, and Yankee: The United States and South Africa, 18704914 (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1978), 68.
4. Allen W. Dulles, The Boer War (Washington, D.C.: For Private Circulation, 1902), 5-6.
5. Quoted in Laurence H. Shoup and William Minter, Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977), 130.
6. CFR memorandum, 17 April 1941.

Notes 377

7. Committee on Africa, the War, and Peace Aims, The Atlantic Charter and Africa from an American Perspective (New York: Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1942), 3,
8. Ibid., 11.
9. Ibid., 34.
10. Jacob Viner et al., The United States in a Multi-National Economy (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1945), 4.
11. Ibid., 17.
12. William Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay: The United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 567.
13. Dwight David Eisenhower, Waging Peace, vol. 2 of The White House Years (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965), 572.
14. Times, 28 Feb. 1942, quoted in Committee on Africa, the War, and Peace Aims, Atlantic charter, 2.
15. Margery Perham, The Colonial Reckoning: The End of Imperial Rule in Africa in the Light of British Experience (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962), 55.
16. John W. Cell, "On the Eve of Decolonization: The Colonial Office's Plan for the Transfer of Power in Africa," Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 8:3 (May 1980): 150.
17. Lord Hailey, The Future of Colonial Peoples (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1944).
18. Cell, "Eve of Decolonization," 254.
19. Elspeth Huxley and Margery Perham, Race and Politics in Kenya (London: Faber & Faber, 1944).
20. W. K. Hancock, Argument of Empire (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1943), 52.
21. William J. Barber, The Economy of British Central Africa (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1967), 92.
22. Sir Roy Welensky, "Toward Federation in Central Africa," Foreign Affairs (October 1952): 148. (New York: Roy Publications, 1964), 148.
23. Escott Reid, Time of Fear and Hope: The Making of the North Atlantic Treaty, 1947-1949 ;Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977), 64-67.
24. Ibid., 81.
25. Chester Bowles, Africa's Challenge to America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1956), 53.
26. Vernon McKay, Africa in World Politics (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 10.
27. Pierre Ryckmans, "Belgian 'Colonialism,' " Foreign Affairs (October 1955): 95.
28. George W. Carpenter, The Way in Africa (New York: Friendship Press, 1959).
29. William Minter, Portuguese Africa and the West (Harmondsworth/NY: Penguin Books/ Monthly Review Press, 1972, 1973), 39.
30. Shercliff, in Foreign Affairs (January 1953): 325.
31. Reid, Time of Fear, 267.
32. Calvin W. Stillman, ed., Africa in the Modern World (Chicago: University of Chicago 'ress, 1955).
33. C. Grove Haines, ed., Africa Today (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1955).
34. Morgenthau, in Stillman, ed., Africa in the Modern World, 321.
35. In Haines, ed., Africa Today, 17.
36. Edward H. McKinley, The Lure of Africa: American Interests in Tropical Africa, 1919-1939 Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1974), 158,
37. Ibid., 157.
38. Robert C. Ruark, Something of Value (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1955), 295.
39. Ibid., 200, 202.
40. William M. Baldwin, Mau Mau Man-Hunt (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1957), 17. 41, Colin Legum, Must We Lose Africa? (London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1954).
42. Harold Macmillan, Pointing the Way, 1959-1961 (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), 476.
43. Allard K. Lowenstein, Brutal Mandate: A Journey to Southwest Africa (New York: Macnillan, 1962), 122.
44. Thomas Karis and Gwendolen Carter, eds., From Protest to Challenge; Hope and Chal'enge, 1935-1952, vol. 2 (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1973), 337-39.
45. Albert Luthuli, Let My People Go (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962), 130.
46. Ibid., 172.
47. James Barber, South Africa's Foreign Policy, 1945-1970 (London: Oxford University Press, 1973), 36.

378 Notes

48. Time, 5 June 1950, 28; 18 Sept. 1950, 35; 24 April 1950,24.
49. David S. McLellan, Dean Acheson: The State Department Years (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1976), 395.
50. Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969), 379.
51. Ibid., 112.
52. Alphaeus Hunton, Resistance against Fascist Enslavement in South Africa: Postscript for Americans (New York: Council on African Affairs, 1953), 57.
53. Trevor Huddieston, Naught for Your Comfort (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1956), 72, 77.
54, George M. Houser, "Meeting Africa's Challenge," Issue VI. 2-3 (Summer/Fall, 1976), 20.
55. Barber, South Africa's Foreign Policy, 62.
56. Anthony Lake, Caution and Concern: The Making of American Policy toward South Africa, 1946-71 (Ph.D. diss., Princeton, 1974), 67-72.
57. Hunton, Resistance, 56.
58. Anthony Lake, Caution and Concern, 71-72.
59. Hunton, Resistance, 62.
60. Ibid., 55.

Chapter 5

1, David J. Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From "Solo" to Memphis (New York: W. W. Norton, 1981), 180.
2. See Maya Angelou, The Heart of a Woman (New York: Random House, 1981), 143-70; and New York Times, 16 Feb. 1960.
3. New York Times, ibid.
4. Madeleine G. Kalb, The Congo Cables: The Cold War in Africa-From Eisenhower to Kennedy (New York: Macmillan, 1982), 37.
5. Ibid., 27,
6. Ibid., 29.
7. Ibid.
8. U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Intelligence, Hearings (Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1975), 60.
9. Richard D. Mahoney, The Kennedy Policy in the Congo, 1961-1963 (Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1980), 62.
10. Ibid., 150.
11. Kalb, Congo Cables, 362.
12. Mahoney, Kennedy Policy, 104-6,
13. Ibid., 337-39.
14. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 81, CIA Memorandum, 12 June 1964.
15. ibid.
16. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 81, Telegram, Department of State to American Embassy, Brussels, 6 August 1964.
17. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 81, Telegram, American Embassy, Brussels to Department of State, 6 August 1964.
18. Richard D. Mahoney, JFK: Ordeal in Africa (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 188-90.
19. John Marcum, The Anatomy of an Explosion, vol. 1 of The Angolan Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969), 182.
20. John Seiler, "The Azores as an Issue in U.S.-Portuguese Relations, 1961-63" (International Conference Group on Modem Portugal, University of New Hampshire, conference paper, 1979), 3.
21. Williams papers, Box 12, Letter from G. Mennen Williams, 24 June 1964.
22. Williams papers, Box 12, Memorandum from G. Mennen Williams, 8 April 1964.

Notes 379

23. Williams papers, Box 10, Letter from GMW to American Consul General in Mozambique, 5 April 1962.
24. Williams papers, Box 10, Memorandum from GMW to Mr. Rostow, 15 November 1962.
25. Williams papers, Box 11, Letter from GMW to American Consul General in Mozambique, 7 June 1963.
26. William Minter, Portuguese Africa and the West (Harmondsworth/NY: Penguin Books/ Monthly Review Press, 1972, 1973), 91-92.
27. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 203, Action Memorandum, 29 April 1964.
28. Williams papers, Box 12, "Africa's Importance to the United States," 19 October 1964.
29. The Observer, 24 July 1968.
30. Nigel Fisher, lain Macleod (London: Andre Deutsch, 1973), 142.
31. Harold D. Nelson, ed., Area Handbook for Malawi (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1975), 188.
32. Carolyn M. McMaster, Malawi: Foreign Policy and Development (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1974), 100; and David T. Williams, Malawi: The Politics of Despair (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978), 296.
33. Douglas Anglin and Timothy M. Shaw, Zambia's Foreign Policy: Studies in Diplomacy and Dependence (Boulder: Westview, 1979), 138.
34. Gabriele Winai Strom, Development and Dependence in Lesotho (Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1978), 23; Christopher Colclough and Stephen McCarthy, The Political Economy of Botswana: A Study of Growth and Distribution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), 256; and David Jones, Aid and Development in Southern Africa: British Aid to Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland (London: Croom Helm, 1977), 103.
35 Colciough and McCarthy, Political Economy of Botswana, 193.
36. Kenneth W. Grundy, Confrontation and Accommodation in Southern Africa: The Limits of Independence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 315-23.

Chapter 6

1. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 76, Memorandum of Conversation, 23 March 1965.
2. Charles Simkins, "Agricultural Production in the African Reserves," Journal of Southern Africa Studies 7:2 (April 1981): 264.
3. Louis Gerber, Friends and Influence: The Diplomacy of Private Enterprise (Cape Town: Purnell, 1973), 8.
4. Richard E. Bissell, Apartheid and International Organizations (Boulder: Westview, 1977),
5. Heinz Hartmann, Enterprise and Politics in South Africa (Princeton: Princeton Industrial Relations, 1962), 18-21,
6. Stanley B. Greenberg, Race and State in Capitalist Development: Comparative Perspectives (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 203.
7. South African Digest, 16 April 1960.
8. South African Digest, 10 June 1960.
9, Gerber, Friends and Influence, 30.
10. South African Digest, 6 Jan. 1961.
11. Harold Macmillan, Pointing the Way, 1959-1961 (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), 169.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid., 172.
14. The Observer, 12 March 1961; see J. D. B. Miller, Survey of Commonwealth Affairs: Problems of Expansion and Attrition, 19534969 (London: Oxford University Press, 1974), 140-60 on the Commonwealth meetings.
15. South African Digest, 1 April 1961.
16. South African Digest, 2 September 1960.
17. South African Digest, 8 January 1960.
18. See Geoff Berridge, Economic Power in Anglo-South African Diplomacy (London: Macmillan, 1981) for an extended if probably overdrawn account.

380 Notes

19. South African Digest, 14 April 1961.
20. Anthony Lake, Caution and Concern: The Making of American Policy toward South Africa, 1946-1971 (Ph.D. diss., Princeton, 1974), 88.
21. Williams papers, Box 1, Memo on U.S. Policy toward the Republic of South Africa, 23 June 1961.
22. Department of State Guidelines for Policy and Operations, Republic of South Africa, May 1962.
23. Williams papers, Box 11, Memo on Proposed Participation in "CAPEX" Naval Exercises, 18 January 1966.
24. Williams papers, Box 10, Memo on Export-Import Bank Guarantee for American Metals Climax Company.
25. South African Digest, 10 June 1960,18 December 1961.
26. New York Times, 2 Oct. 1963.
27. Thomas J. Noer, Cold War and Black Liberation: The United States and White Rule in Africa, 1948-1968 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1985), 148.
28. Colin and Margaret Legum, South Africa: Crisis for the West (New York; Praeger, 1964), 273.
29. Quoted in Lake, Caution and Concern, 87.
30. Bissell, Apartheid, 72.
31. Charles Arden-Clarke, "South-West Africa, the Union and the United Nations," AA 59 (January 1960): 34.
32. Ernest Gross; "The South West Africa Case: What Happened?" Foreign Affairs (Oct. 1966): 42.
33. Ibid.
34. Ernest Gross et al., Ethiopia and Liberia vs. South Africa: The South West African Case (Los Angeles: UCLA African Studies Center, 1968), 26.
35. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 76, Briefing for NSC Standing Group, 10 March 1964, Annex 5:3.
36, LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 76, Briefing for NSC Standing Group, 10 March 1964: 4.
37. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 76, Briefing for NSC Standing Group, 10 March 1964: 5-6.
38. Gail-Maryse Cockram, South West African Mandate (Cape Town: luta, 1976), 310.
39. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Boxes 78-79, Memorandum for the Record, 30 November 1964,
40. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Boxes 78-79, Memorandum for Mr. Bundy, 23 December 1964.
41. John J. Seiler, The Formulation of U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa, 1957-1976 (Ph.D. diss., University of Connecticut, 1976), 494.
42. Lake, Caution and Concern, 149.
43, Dennis Austin, Britain and South Africa (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), 116.
44. Paul Foot, The Politics of Harold Wilson (Harrnondsworth: Penguin, 1968), 272-76; and Anne Darnboroug,h, Labour's Record on Southern Africa: An Examination of Attitudes before October 1964 and Actions Since (London: Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1967).
45. Harold Wilson, A Personal Record: The Labour Government, 1964-1970 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971),
46. Waldemar Nielsen, African Battleline: American Policy Choices in Southern Africa (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), 123.
47. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Boxes 78-79, Central Intelligence Agency, Special Report: Sanctions and the South African Economy, 3 September 1965.
48. SWAPO of Namibia, Department of Information and Publicity, To Be Born a Nation: The Liberation Struggle for Namibia (London: Zed Press, 1981), 311,315.
49, LBJ Library, National Security Files, Boxes 78-79, Memorandum for the President, 29 September 1964.
50. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Boxes 78-79, Memorandum for Mr. McGeorge Bundy, 28 September 1964.
51. Winifred Courtney and Jennifer Davis, Namibia: United States Corporate Involvement (New York: Africa Fund, 1972).
52. Elizabeth Landis, Namibia: The Beginning of Disengagement (Denver: University of Denver, 1970), 26.

Notes 381

53. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 76, Department of State Cable from Cape Town, 12 June 1964.
54. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 76, Department of State Memorandum of Conversation, 30 July 1964.
55. LBJ Library, National Security Files, Box 76, Department of State Cable from Cape Town, 15 April 1964.
56. James P. Barber, Rhodesia: The Road to Rebellion (London: Oxford University Press, 1967), 17.
57. Ibid., 47.
58. Ibid., 46.
59. Robert C. Good, U.D.I.: The International Politics of the Rhodesian Rebellion (Princeton; Princeton University Press, 1973), 47,
60. Wilson, A Personal Record, 165.
61. Williams papers, Box 22, Report of G. Mennen Williams on His Second Trip to Africa, 8 August-1 September 1961.
62. Williams papers, Box 2, Editors' Briefing, 12 October 1962.
63. Williams papers, Box 11, Memo on Southern Rhodesia, 29 March 1963.
64. Williams papers, Box 11, Memo on Southern Rhodesian UN Resolution, 15 June 1963.
65. Williams papers, Box 14, Memo on Fourth Committee Vote on Southern Rhodesia, 3 November 1965.
66. Good, Rhodesian Rebellion, 258.
67, Elaine Windrich, Britain and the Politics of Rhodesian Independence (London: Croom Helm, 1978), 16.
68. Ibid., 62.
69. Good, Rhodesian Rebellion, 258.
70. Colin Stoneman, ed., Zimbabwe's Inheritance (New York: St. Martin's, 1981), 95.
71. The basic source is Martin Bailey, Oi!gate: The Sanctions Scandal (London: Coronet, 1979). The Bingham Report was published by the British government in 1978.
72. Bailey, Oilgate, 132.
73. LBJ National Security Files, Box 97, Outline of Rhodesian Problem, 1 December 1965.
74. Anna P. Schreiber, "Economic Coercion as an Instrument of Foreign Policy: U.S. Economic Measures against Cuba and the Dominican Republic," World Politics 25 (April 1973): 387-413.
75. Harry R. Strack, Sanctions: The Case of Rhodesia (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1978), 130.
76. Stoneman, Zimbabwe's Inheritance, 201.
77. D. G. Clarke, Foreign Companies and International Investment in Zimbabwe (London: CIIR, 1980), 47-48.
78. Ibid., 137-38.
79. D. Hobart Houghton, The South African Economy, 4th ed. (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1976), 212.
80. Charles Simkins, The Distribution of the African Population of South Africa (Capetown: SALDRU, 1981), 25-28.
81. Barbara Rogers, White Wealth and Black Poverty: American Investments in Southern Africa (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976), 37.
82. Houghton, South African Economy, 4th ed., 273.
83. Heribert Adam and Hermann Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized: Can South Africa Change? (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), 169.
84. Study Project on External Investment in South Africa and Namibia, Foreign Investment, 23.
85. Ibid., 187.
86. Duncan Innes, Anglo American and the Rise of Modern South Africa (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984), 141.
87. Rogers, White Wealth, 126-27.
88. Ruth First, Jonathan Steele, and Cristabel Gurney, The South African Connection: Western Investment in Apartheid (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1973), 106-7.
89. IDAF, The Apartheid War Machine: The Strength and Deployment of the South African Armed Forces (London: IDAF, 1980), 10,41,43.

382 Notes

Chapter 7

1. Seymour M. Hersh, The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House (New York: Summit Books, 1983), 263.
2. South Africa International, January 1971.
3. Norman Macrae, "The Green Bay Tree," The Economist, 29 June 1968.
4. Lake, Anthony, Caution and Concern: The Making of American Policy toward South Africa, 1946-1971 (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1974), 173.
5. John J. Seiler, The Formulation of U.S. Policy, Ph.D. diss., University of Connecticut, 1976, 425.
6. House Africa Subcommittee, 1971, Part I, 291.
7. Lake, Caution and Concern, 159.
8. House Africa Subcommittee, 1971, Part I, 291.
9. Seiler, 1/.5. Policy, 511.
10. Ibid., 470.
11. Ibid., 468.
12. Colin Legum, ed., Africa Contemporary Record (ACR) (New York: Africana/Holmes & Meier, 1969), A24.
13. Ibid.
14. M. J. Christie, The Simonstown Agreements: Britain's Defence and the Sale of Arms to South Africa (London: Africa Bureau, 1970), 5.
15. Ibid., 15.
16. J. E. Spence, The Strategic Significance of Southern Africa, 1919-1941 (Whitehall: Royal United Service Institute, 1970).
17. Isebill V. Gruhn, British Arms Sales to South Africa: The Limits of African Diplomacy (Denver: Center on International Race Relations, 1972), 23.
18. Lake, Caution and Concern, 117.
19. Gruhn, British Arms Sales, 14.
20. Legum, ACR, 1971, A78-79.
21. On the Ugandan coup, see Jonathan Bloch and Patrick Fitzgerald, British Intelligence and Covert Action: Africa, Middle East, and Europe since 1945 (Kerry, Ireland: Brandon, 1983); and David Martin, General Amin (London: Faber and Faber, 1974), 158-69.
22. Hersh, Price of Power, 294-95.
23. Michele Noel, "L'evsilution des Relations economiques entre la France et I'Afrique du Sud," Revue francaise des Etudes politiques africaines 74 (February 1972): 52.
24. South Africa International, July 1970,44.
25. Jean Helga, "La Place de I'Afriquedans la Politique des Investissements prives allemands a l'etranger," Revue francaise des Etudes politiques africaines 64 (April 1971): 39.
26. South Africa International, January, April 1972.
27. South Africa International, July 1971.
28. Ibid.
29. See Zdenek Cervenka and Barbara Rogers, The Nuclear Axis: Secret Collaboration between West Germany and South Africa (London: Julian Friedmann, 1978).
30. South Africa Reserve Bank Quarterly Bulletin, September 1973.
31. S. J. Bosgra and Chr. van Krimpen, Portugal and NATO (Amsterdam: Angola Comite, 1972), 24.
32. William Minter, Portuguese Africa and the West (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971), 163.
33. Seiler, U.S. Policy, 505.
34. Bosgra and van Krimpen, Portugal and NATO, 72-73.
35. Committee for Freedom in Mozambique, Angola and Guine, Partners in Crime: The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance Past and Present (London: MAGIC, 1973), 34-35.
36. Southern Africa, June-July 1971,9.
37. See the documents in Afrique-Asie, 8 July 1974, which came from archives in Portugal captured after the April coup. Their authenticity has been confirmed by former Portuguese officers, together with additional details. See Phyllis Johnson and David Martin, eds., Destructive Engagement: Southern Africa at War (Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House, 1986).
38. Gerald Bender, "Portugal and Her Colonies Join the Twentieth Century: Causes and initial Implications of the Military Coup," Ufahamu 4:3 (Winter 1974): 123.

Notes 383

39. Kenneth Maxwell, "Portugal and Africa: The Last Empire," in The Transfer of Power in Africa: Decolonization, 1940-1960, eds. Prosser Gifford and William Roger Louis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 358.
40. Elaine Windrich, Britain and the Politics of Rhodesian Independence (London: Croom Helm, 1978), 153.
41. Mervyn Jones, Rhodesia: The White Judge's Burden (London: IDAF, 1972), 3.
42. Windrich, Rhodesian Independence, 198.
43. John Dugard, The South West Africa /Namibia Dispute: Documents and Scholarly Writings on the Controversy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 478.
44. Ibid., 440.
45. Lake, Caution and Concern, 153.
46. Elizabeth Landis, Namibia: The Beginning of Disengagement (Denver: University of Denver, 1970).
47. Reed Kramer and Tami Hultman, Tsumeb: A Profile of United States Contribution to Underdevelopment in Namibia (New York: National Council of Churches, 1973), 6,19-20,26.
48. Ibid., 13.
49. SWAPO of Namibia, Department of Information and Publicity, To Be Born a Nation: The Liberation Struggle for Namibia (London: Zed Press, 1981), 202.
50. Elisabeth Adler, A Small Beginning: An Assessment of the First Five Years of the Programme to Combat Racism (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1974), 40.
51, Timothy W. Smith, The American Corporation in South Africa: An Analysis (New York: Southern Africa Committee, 1970), 6.
52. Laurence H. Shoup and William Minter, Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977), 218.

Chapter 8

1. Robin Moore, Rhodesia (New York: Condor, 1977), 195.
2. Kenneth Maxwell, "Portugal and Africa: The Last Empire," in The Transfer of Power in Africa: Decolonization, 1940-1960, eds. Prosser Gifford and William Roger Louis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 347.
3. Ibid., 357-8.
4. F. W. Heimer, The Decolonization Conflict in Angola, 1974-76: An Essay in Political Sociology (Geneva: Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales, 1979), 59.
5. John Stockwell, In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story (New York: W. W. Norton, 1978), 66-67.
6. Helmer, Decolonization Conflict, 59.
7. Stephen R. Weissman, "The CIA and U.S. Policy in Zaire and Angola," in American Policy in Southern Africa: The Stakes and the Stance, 2d ed., ed. Rene Lemarchand (Washington: University Press of America, 1981), 438.
8, Stockwell, In Search of Enemies, 53.
9. Ibid.
10. John Marcum, Exile Politics and Guerrilla Warfare, 1962-1976, vol. 2 of The Angolan Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1978), 275.
11. Africa Report, May-June 1976,126.
12. Jose Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo, 25 de Novembro sem Mdscara (Lisbon: Intervencio, 1979), 56-57.
13. Colin Legum, Southern Africa: Year of the Whirlwind (New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1977), 69.
14. David Martin and Phyllis Johnson, The Struggle for Zimbabwe: The Chimurenga War (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1981), 129.
15. Ibid., 132,346.
16. See Suzanne Cronje, Margaret Ling, and Gillian Cronje, Lonrho: Portrait of a Multinational (London: Julian Friedmann Books, 1976).
17. David Martin and Phyllis Johnson, The Chitepo Assassination (Harare: Zimbabwe Publishing House, 1985).
18. Legum, Southern Africa, 14.
19. Martin and Johnson, The Struggle for Zimbabwe, 255.

384 Notes

20. Kevin Danaher, The Political Economy of U.S. Policy toward South Africa (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz, 1982).
21. Legum, Southern Africa, 54.
22. See Bloch and Fitzgerald, British Intelligence and Covert Action: Africa, Middle East, and Europe since 1945 (Kerry, Ireland: Brandon, 1983), 50-51; and Africa News, 7 December 1979.
23. Jennifer Davis, US Dollars in South Africa: Context and Consequence (New York: Committee to Oppose Bank Loans to South Africa, 1978), 12.
24. IDAF, The Apartheid War Machine: The Strength and Deployment of the South African Armed Forces (London: IDAF, 1980), 10.
25. Counter Information Services, Black South Africa Explodes (London: Counter Information Services, 1977).
26. Ibid., 44-45.
27. Baruch Hirson, Year of Fire, Year of Ash (The Soweto Revolt: Roots of a Revolution?) (London: Zed Press, 1979), 98.
28. Davis, US Dollars, 15.
29. Corporate Data Exchange, Bank Loans to South Africa, 1972-1978 (New York: UN Centre against Apartheid, 1979).
30. Southern Africa, March 1978.
31. Colin Legum, ed. Africa Contemporary Record [ACRD (New York: Africana/Holrnes & Meier, 1979), Al20.
32. Corporate Data Exchange, Bank Loans.
33. Africa News, 25 May 1979.
34. Danaher, Political Economy, 397.
35. Ibid., 348.
36. Africa News, 10 April 1978.
37. David Scott, Ambassador in Black and White: Thirty Years of Changing Africa (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1981).
38. Ibid., 201.
39. Southern Africa, April 1976,22.
40. Quoted in Dan O'Meara, "From Muldergate to Total Strategy: The Politics of Afrikaner Nationalism" (Maputo, 1984, Mimeographed), 36 from RDM, 13 June 1979.
41. Quoted in Rob Davies, Dan O'Meara, and Sipho Dlamini, The Struggle for South Africa: A Reference Guide to Movements, Organizations, and Institutions (London: Zed Press,1984), 123.
42. O'Meara, "Muldergate," 37.
43. Hermann Giliornee, The Parting of the Ways (Capetown: David Philip, 1982), 35.
44. See for an extensive discussion, Elizabeth Schmidt, Decoding Corporate Camouflage: U.S. Business Support for Apartheid (Washington, D.C.: IPS, 1980); and Elizabeth Schmidt, One Step in the Wrong Direction: An Analysis of the Sullivan Principles (New York: Episcopal Church-people for Southern Africa, 1985).
45. Africa News, 7 April 1980.
46. Africa News, 26 April 1982.
47. James Adams, The Unnatural Alliance: Israel and South Africa (London: Quartet Books, 1984), 195.
48. Cyrus R. Vance, Hard Choices: Critical Years in America's Foreign Policy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983), 277.
49. Adams, Unnatural Alliance, 185.
50. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977-1981 (New York; Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983), 56.
51. Africa News, 5 June 1978.
52. Vance, Hard Choices, 90.
53. Vance, Hard Choices, 274.
54. Martin and Johnson, The Struggle for Zimbabwe, 279-80.
55. Ibid., 309.
56. Julie Frederikse, None But Ourselves: Masses vs. Media in the Making of Zimbabwe (New York: Penguin Books, 1984), 142-43.
57. Mervyn Rees and Chris Day, Muldergate (Johannesburg: Macmillan, 1980), 200; see also Eschel Rhoodie, The Real Information Scandal (Pretoria: Orbis, 1983).
58. Southern Africa, June 1979,12.

Notes 385

Chapter 9

1. James A. Michener, The Covenant (New York: Fawcett Crest, 1980), 1227.
2. Colin Legum, "The MNR," CSIS Africa Notes 16 (July 15, 1983): 2.
3. Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa, South Africa: Time Running Out (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), xxii.
4. William J. Foltz, Elite Opinion on United States Policy toward Africa (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1979), 20-21; and Africa News, 25 May 1979.
5. Laurence I. Barrett, Gambling with History: Reagan in the White House (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1974), 61.
6. Kevin Danaher, The Political Economy of U.S. Policy toward South Africa (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz, 1982), 5.
7. See Chester A. Crocker and William H. Lewis,."Missing Opportunities in Africa," Foreign Policy 35 (Summer 1979); 142-61. Other typical statements of Crocker's point of view include Chester A. Crocker, Mario Greszes, and Robert Henderson, "Southern Africa: A U.S. Policy for the '80s," Freedom at Issue (November-December 1980): 11-18; Chester Crocker, "South Africa: Strategy for Change," Foreign Affairs (Winter 1980): 323-51; and Chester Crocker, "African Policy in the 1980s," Washington Quarterly (Summer 1980): 72-85.
8. Jeffrey Davidow, A Peace in Southern Africa (Boulder: Westview, 1984) provides an extended analysis of the negotiations along these lines, from the point of view of a State Department observer.
9. Crocker and Lewis, "Missing Opportunities," 146-47.
10. Chester Crocker et al., "United States Policy towards Africa," Issue (Fall-Winter 1982): 21.
11. Merle Lipton, "British Investment in South Africa: Is Constructive Engagement Possible?" South African Labour Bulletin 3:3 (October 1976): 10-48; and Samuel P. Huntington, "Reform and Stability in a Modernizing, Multi-Ethnic Society," Politikon 8:2 (December 1981): 8-26,
12. See documents in TransAfrica News Report, August 1981.
13. South Africa Broadcasting Corporation, 5 March 1981.
14, Press Conference, 28 August 1981.
15. Chester Crocker, "Regional Strategy for Southern Africa" (Address before the American Legion in Honolulu, Hawaii, 29 August 1981).
16. Wall Street Journal, 6 May 1980.
17. Guardian (U.K.), 26 March 1981.
18. Afriqueasie, 1 Feb. 1982.
19. Washington Post, 12 Jan. 1982.
20. Africa News, 7 Dec. 1981.
21. Africa News, 22 Oct. 1984.
22. Ibid.
23. Africa News, 6 Dec. 1982,13 June 1983.
24. Africa News, 9 May 1983,22 Oct. 1984.
25. See Benjamin Beit-Hallami, "Israel and South Africa, 1977-1982: Business as Usual- And More," New Outlook (March-April 1983): 31-35; and Adams, Unnatural Alliance.
26. See Ravenhill in Legum, ACR, 1982: A210-A218.
27. See Shipping Research Bureau, Secret Oil Deliveries to South Africa, 1981-1982 (Amsterdam: Shipping -Research Bureau, 1984).
28. Deon Geldenhuys, "Die Zukunft Siidafrikas aus deutscher Sicht," Aussenpolitik 1 (1985): 80-98.
29. Theodor Hanf et al., South Africa: The Prospects of Peaceful Change (London: Rex Collings, 1981).
30. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Sadafrika: Optionen fur die Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Bonn: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 1981).
31. Cervenka in Colin Legum, ed. Africa Contemporary Record [ACRI (New York: Africana/Holmes & Meier, 1982), A192.

386 Notes

32. Rainer Falk, "Das Apartheid-Geschaft: Dimensionen der Deutsch-Siidafrikanischen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und ihre Rolle bei die Stabilisierungňdes Apartheidsystem," Bliitter fur Deutsche und Internationale Politik (September 1985): 1055,
33. See articles by Wauthier in Legum, ACR, 1982: A236-A245; 1983: A104-A112; 1984: A209-A216.
34. Beate Klein, Bank Loans to South Africa, 1979-Mid-l982 (New York: UN Centre against Apartheid, 1982); and Eva Militz, Bank Loans to South Africa, Mid-1982 to End 1984 (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1985).
35. James Barber, The Uneasy Relationship: Britain and South Africa (London: Heinemann, 1983), 32.
36. Ibid., 55.
37. Margaret Legum et al., Against An Reason (London: Fabian Society, 1981), 37.
38. Barber, Uneasy Relationship, 69,71-73.
39. The Times (London), 19 Feb. 1981.
40. See Keith D. Sutter, Australia's Changing Policies towards Apartheid (New York: UN Centre against Apartheid, 1985); and Higgott in Legum, ACR, 1982: A219-A235.
41. Joanne Haiman, Joan Bhabha, and Guy Wright, Relations between Canada and South Africa (New York: UN Centre against Apartheid, 1984); and Brian Douglas Tennyson, Canadian Relations with South Africa (Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982).
42. See, for example, Shirley Washington, "Portugal's New Initiatives," Africa Report 27:6 (November-December 1982): 9-13; and De Figueiredo in Legum, ACR, 1983: A139-A143; 1984: A258-A266.
43. Helen Kitchen, "The Eagleburger Contribution," CSIS Africa Notes 17 (July 30, 1983): 1-6.
44, Johannesburg Sunday Times, 29 Sept. 1985.
45. London Sunday Times, 1 Sept. 1985; and Michael 0. Sutcliffe and Paul A. Wellings, "Black Worker 'Attitudes' and Disinvestment: A Critique of the Schlemmer Report," TransAfrica Forum 3:1 (Fall 1985): 3-24.
46. The Kairos Theologians, Challenge to the Church; A Theological Comment on the Political Crisis in South Africa (Stony Point, N.Y.: Theology in Global Context, 1985).


1. London Sunday Times, 1 Sept. 1985.
2. Sunday Tribune (South Africa), 8 Dec. 1985.
3. Ronald Segal, ed., Sanctions against South. Africa (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964), 14.
4. Xan Smiley, in The Economist, February 1-7,1986,33-40.
5. The preliminary I1E conclusions were published in Gary Clude Hufbauer and Jeffrey J. Schott, with Kimberly Ann Elliott, Economic Sanctions in Support of Foreign Policy Goals (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1983); the full report, with details on each case studied, in Gary Clude Hufbauer and Jeffrey J. Schott, with Kimberly Ann Elliott, Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: History and Current Policy (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1985). David A. Baldwin, Economic Statecraft (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985) includes Rhodesia as one of his reconsidered "classic cases."
6. Richard J. Walton, The Remnants of Power (New York: Coward-McCann, 1968), 203.
7. See, for example, the discussions in Catholic Institute for International Relations, Sanctions against South Africa (London: CIIR, 1985), Sutcliffe and Wellings, "Black Worker 'Attitudes,' " and sources cited there.
8. Nelson Mandela, No Easy Walk to Freedom (London: Heinemann, 1965), 189.


Abdurahman, Dr. Abdullah, 33; 61
Aborigines' Protection Society; 69
Acheson, Dean: McLellan on, 133; Portuguese policy of, 116; on "realistic" ties, 222
Ackerman, Werner, 217
Adams, James, 292
Adoula, Cyrille: U.S. investment in, 147-50, 151
Adventures of the Only American Who Has Fought the Terrorists in Kenya, The (Baldwin), 121
AE&CI: dominance of, 50; see also African Explosives and Chemicals Industries
Africa Bureau, 134: action memo of, 162; and bifurcated policy of U.S., 188-89; on Rhodesian elections, 301-02; scholarship program of, 161; and token criticism of Portugal, 158, 160
African American Institute (AAI), 201
African Battleline (Nielsen): on delay of sanctions, 197-98
African Explosives and Chemicals Industries (AE&CI), 12
African Liberation Day, 257
African Liberation Support Committees, 257
African Mine Workers Union: 1946 strike of, 86-87
African National Congress (ANC), 239; opposition of to land act, 59-60; program of, 126; of S.A., 44; see also ANC
African National Council of Zimbabwean nationalists, 272
African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PA1GC), 156; see also PAIGC
African People's Organization, 61
African resistance and Western reaction, 30-36, 59-65, 123-30, 180-93, 244-58, 276-83, 331-40
African Survey: of Chatham House, 65; selective bias of, 71-72
Africanists: in Kennedy regime, 147-50
Afrikaans language: government promotes, 56
Afrikaans speakers: as urban labor force, 93
Afrikaans-speaking whites: voting franchise advantage of, 14
Afrikaanse Handelsinstituut (AH1), 93; on relaxation of pass laws, 183
Afrikaner Broederbond: see Bond; Broederbond
Afrikaner nationalism, 55-56, 74
Afrikaner nationalists: conflict of with imperial capitalists, 55-59; U.S. skepticism of,
Afrikaner Party, 90
Afrikanerdom: myth of unified, 55
Afrikaners, 4; apartheid system of, 75; dominant role of in government, 50, 94-95; emphasis of on national unity, 92; as guilty for racial plight 104-05; and increase in ownership of manufacturing, 214, 215; increase of political influence of, 45; "power sharing" concept of, 346; segregationist policies of, 26-27
Aggett, Dr. Neil, 333
Aims of Industry, 186
Airwork Services, Ltd., 276-77
Algeria: NATO protects, 114-15
All African Convention (AAC), 61
All African Peoples Conference, 181
All Souls College: Oxford and Kindergarten, 44
Allegheny Ludlum, 276
Allen, Richard, 310
Allende, Salvador: U.S. efforts against, 228
Altrincham, Lord: see Grigg, Edward
Alvor agreement, 264, 265
AMAX: financial links of, 201; profit of, 199, 200; and Tsumeb mine, 242-43
American Committee on Africa, 134, 252,
253-54, 258
American Committee for Aid to Katanga Freedom Fighters, 149
American Dilemma, The (Myrdal), 135
"American Interest in the Colonial Problem," 108-09
American Metal Company, 49; see also AMAX
American-South African Investment Trust, 77
Amery, Leo, 45, 56-57
Amin, Idi, 227
A Modern Slavery (Nevinson), 30
ANC, 346, 347; defiance campaigns of, 180; escalates sabotage, 330-31; and Nkomati Accord, 331; Nordic countries support, 321; resists pass laws, 60; sabotage activities of, 193, 309; Soviet ties with, 246; unsuccessful strike of, 192
Andrews, ER, 276
Angelou, Maya, 139
Anglo-American cooperation, 38, 44

388 Index

Anglo American Corporation of South
Africa, 19, 48-49, 73-74; in Rhodesia, 212 Anglo-Boer War: toll of on Britain, 39; U.S.
debate concerning, 106, 107n Anglo-German agreement on Portuguese
colonies, 11
Angola: anticolonial war in, 154-64; as counter-balance, 345; labor laws in, 54; Portuguese administer, 45; Portuguese financial groups in, 233; Soviet-Cuban presence in, 316; treatment of workers in, 30; U.S. business ties in, 317; U.S. document on, 161-62; U.S. hostility to, 344; U.S. support for rebels in, 339
Angola Comite, 251
Anti-Apartheid Act of 1985, 338, 339, 340 anti-apartheid movement, 186; on oil sanctions, 210; in U.S., 344
Anti-Slavery and Aborigines' Protection Society, 60
anticommunism: Banda on, 168 anticommunist appeal: as glue of apartheid regime, 346
anticommunist hysteria, 132-33
apartheid: controversy over, 336-37; European pressure against, 321; neo, 285-87; origins of movement, 89-93; recoding, 287-89; reform of, as high priority, 261-62; South Africa's defiance of UN on, 124; survey supports end to, 337, 337n; system of, 74-75; UN Commission study on, 134
Arden-Clarke, Sir Charles, 125, 193-94 Armaments Development and Production Corporation (ARMSCOR), 219
Armed Forces Movement (MFA): and Portugese coup, 262
ARMSCOR: arms agreement with France, 230; Botha initiatives with, 286-87 arms bans: as gestures, 347
arms embargo: and airplane sale to Portugal, 234; effect of, on South Africa, 291-92; relaxation of, 223-24; U.S. against South Africa, 190
arms sale: to Portugal, 234-35
Arriaga, Gen. Kaulza de: and counterinsurgent campaign, 235
asbestos: mining of, 19
Asiatic Land Tenure Bill ("Ghetto Bill"), 127 assimilados, 99; Mondlane on, 68
Associated Chambers of Commerce (ASSOCOM), 50, 87, 183, 184
Atlantic Charter, 107, 108
Atlantic Charter and Africa from an American Standpoint, The, 108
Atmore, Anthony: on balance of military power, 32-33
Austin, Dennis: on UN sanctions, 197 automobile industry: South African, 217; U.S. exports to South Africa, 81-82
Azevedo, Jose Pinheiro de, 270
Azores Islands, 116, 160; U.S. air base on, 234-35, 236
Baden-Powell, Lord, 43
Bailey, Martin, 209n
Baldwin, David, 349
Baldwin, James, 250
Baldwin, William, 121
Balfour Declaration (1926), 56
Ball, George, 148, 149
Bamangwato, 131
Bambatha: guerrilla campaign of, 32
Banco Burnay, 78
Banda, Kamuzu, 167-69
Bantu (human beings): derivation of term, 98
Bantu Are Coming, The (Phillips), 62
Bantu languages, 4
Bantu Voters Association: Rhodesian, 69
Bantustans: as ethnic homelands, 195, 196
Barber, James, 134
Baring, Sir Evelyn, 119
Bamato, Barney, 15, 16
Barnes, Leonard, 20, 63
Barue rebellion of 1917, 68
Basotho Congress Party (BCP), 174
Basotho National Party (BNP), 174-75
Basutoland, 9; as British protectorate, 45; see
also Lesotho
Beatty, Chester, 49
Beaumont Commission, 60
Bechuanaland, 131; British annex, 9; as British protectorate, 45; see also Botswana
Beer, George Louis, 45
Beira: expansion of, 78
Beira-Umtali pipeline, 210
Belt, Alfred: and diamond monopoly, 16-18
Bekker, Thys, 217
Belgian colonialism, 68, 113-18, 139-53
Belgian Congo, 30, 54, 68, 115-16; see also Congo, Zaire
Belgium: abandons colony, 344; abandons Congo rule, 138-44; constructive paternalism of, 67-68; paternalist policy of, 115-16; rule of in Africa, 45-46
Benguela Railway, 19; control of, 78
Bergh, Hendrik van den, 273
Berghe, Pierre van den: on U.S. military presence, 192
Berry, Dr. Mary, 335
Biko, Steve: and SASO, 258; murder of, 278
"Black Bolshevism": alternative to, 61
black community: clear vision of, 345
Black Consciousness movement, 258
black elite: appropriate role of, 72
Black Leadership Conference on South Africa, 280
black miners: exploitation of, 52

Index 389

black participation: formal concessions to, 346
Black Sash, 130
black trade union movement, 333, 337
black workers: protests of, 258-59
Blood River, 91
Blumenthal, Michael, 281
Blundell, Michael, 121-22
Boer republic, 5
Boers, 4; as leaders in Union of South Africa, 13-14; racial ideologies of, 21; as threat to British, 9
Boesak, Allan, 305-35
Bond, the, 91-93; see also Broederbond
Bondelswart: bombing of,
42 Bophuthatswana: as independent, 287
Botha, General, 13, 60
Botha, P.W., 261; imposes state of emergency, 338; on need for power sharing, 346; as part of military-business alliance, 284-85; as reformist, 286-87
Botha, Roelof (Pik), 329
Botswana, 131; independence of, 173-76; South Africa attack on, 340; see also Bechuanaland
Bowles, Chester, 115, 146, 149
Brand, Robert (Lord), 44, 54-55
Brandt, Chancellor Willy, 231
Britain: as bulwark against sanctions, 324; exports to South Africa, 178; investments in South Africa, 178; position of, after Anglo-Boer War, 13-14; and Smith's Rhodesia, 237-41; supports African independents, 326; Zambian dependence on, 171-72
Britain and South Africa (Austin), 197
British: annex diamond area, 8-9; efforts of, to delay Rhodesian independents, 202-13; military conquests of, 9; necessity for hegemony of, 31; overseas investments of, 80-81
British Africa: decolonization in, 165-78 British colonialism, and foreign policy, 4-14, 38-46, 68-72, 110-13, 118-23, 164-78, 185-87, 202-13, 225-28, 236-40, 322-24 British-Boer cooperation, 39-46
British Empire: and India, 5; as market for British exports, 8
British Labour Party, 65, 112-13, 131,
324 "British race patriotism," 11; Milner's, 12
British South Africa Company (BSAC), 18, 28, 44; in Southern Rhodesia, 4
British West Africa: and readiness for independence, 111-12
Broederbond, 56
Broken Hill: mine at, 19
Brown, Harold, 201, 281
Brown, Robert K., 276
Brutus, Dennis, 179, 252
Bruwer, A.J., 56
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 281, 296-97
Buchan, John, 43-44; native policies of Rhodes, 37-38, 38n
Bulhoek: police attack at, 42
Bunche, Ralph, 108
Bundy, McGeorge, 180
Burden, William, 145
Burlington Free Press: on U.S. arms sales to South Africa, 292
Bushmen, 4
Butcher, Goler, 280
Buthelezi, Chief Gatsha, 322
Byrd amendment, 238-39, 258, 299
Byrnes, James, 201
Cabindan separatists, 267
Cabora Bassa: hydroelectric project, 251
Cabral, Amilcar, 235
Caetano, Marcello, 158, 232-34
Caliban in Africa (Barnes), 63
Callaghan, James, 274
Cambodia: U.S. invades, 228
Caramel Laird (shipbuilding firm), 44
Canada: anti-apartheid policies of, 325 Cape
Colony franchise: on voting rights, 13-14
Cape franchise: elimination of, 58
"Cape Coloured," 4; see also Coloureds Cape Town: European settlement of, 4
capital: economic role of, 16; foreign, 79-82, 102, 183, 279; localization of, 47-50; source of, for diamond mines, 15, 15-16n
capitalist class: nascent African, 123
Carlucci, Frank, 267
Carmichael, Stokely, 256
Carnegie Commission on the Poor White Problem, 57
Carnegie Corporation of New York, 64, 71, 135n
Carpenter, George, 115
Carpio, Victorio, 195
Carrington, Lord: and Rhodesian elections, 302-03
Carter administration, 280-83
Casey, William, 224, 310
cash crops: export, 52
Cassange, 54
Cassinga: raid at refugee camp at, 295, 297
Castle, Barbara, 122
Castro, R: African tour of, 282
Central African Federation: breakup of, 123, 171; experience of, 112-13
Central Mining: capital sources of, 48-49; control of, 74
Century of Injustice, A (Smuts), 342
Chamber of Mines, 17, 47, 50
Chamberlain, Joseph, 10-12

390 Index

Champalimaud, Antonio, 169
Champalimaud group, the, 233
Chatham House, 44; African Survey of, 65
Chettle, John, 222
Chilembwe, John, 37, 66-67
China, 246, 266
Chinese: recruitment of, as laborers, 24-25
Chipembere, Henry, 168
Chipenda, Daniel, 268
Chissano, Joaquim, 329
Chitepo, Dr. Herbert, 273-74
"Christian nationalism": in the Bond, 91
Christian-Marxist dialogue: in Southern Africa, 248
Christianity and the Race Problem (Oldham), 64-65
chrome: U.S.-Rhodesia trade in, 238-39
chromite: mining of, 19
Churchill, Winston, 32, 43, 110
CIA: aids Angolan rebels, 264; on Congo government, 148, 151; involvement with arms sales, 292; memo of against boycotts, 198; in northern Africa, 114-15; and plots against Lumumba, 145-46; in sub-Saharan Africa, 117
civil rights movement: U.S., 344
"civilized labor": as government policy, 58; government regulations encouraged, 88
"civilized" minority: franchise for, 61
"civilized" standards: Rhodesian, 99-100
Clark amendment, 269, 317, 318, 340
Clark, Senator Dick, 300; heads Africa Sub-committee, 276; see also Clark amendment
Clark, William, 310, 313-14, 317
Clayton, Archbishop, 104, 104-05n
Clough, Michael, 348n
Colenso, Harriette, 32
Colonialism: diminishing infience of, 102; UN program against, 248-49; U.S. attitude toward, 108-10
color bar: employment, 22; exploitation, 22; "floating," 88; Gunther on, 115; laws protecting, 58
Coloured Representative Council, 98
Coloureds, 4; and franchise, 97-98; pre-WWII protests of, 59; relocated, 97; reserved status of vote for, 130
Commonwealth: agreement imposes duties on non-Empire copper, 49; Curtis on concept of, 38; reaction to South African state of emergency, 338
Commonwealth Conference of 1971, 237
Commonwealth factor: anti-apartheid critique of, 325
"Commonwealth unity": as British policy, 44
Communism: and national self-determination, 245-46; post-WWII influence, 114
Communist International, 65
Communist Party of South Africa, 61, 65, 126; and ANC, 245
Companhia Uniio Fabril, 233
computers: in South Africa, 217
Conakry, Guinea: Portuguese attack on, 235
Conference of Independent African States, 181
"Congo crisis": and U.S., 139-46
Congo, see Belgian Congo and Zaire
Congo National Liberation Front (FLNC): in Zaire, 296
"Congress Alliance," 130
Congress of Democrats, 129
Congressional Black Caucus, 257
Conservative imperialists: attitude of toward Africans, 34, 35
Conservative Party, 187, 187n, 225, 301
Consolidated Diamond Mines, 199 Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa,
10; see also Gold fields
"constructive engagement": failure of, 348, 348n; restated, 328; source of, 312-13; as U.S. diplomatic base, 306
Contact Group on Namibia, 294, 326
copper: mining of, 19; Oppenheimer's control of, 49
Corner House mining group, 11, 12
Corporate Information Center, 255
Cotter, William, 281
Council for African Affairs, 133
Concil on Foreign Relations (CFR), 44, 201; on delay in sanctions, 197-98; survey on sanctions, 309; on U.S. war aims, 107
Council of Non-European Trade Unions, 129
Council of South African Trade Unions, 337
Coutinho, Admiral Rosa, 264
Crocker, Chester, 306, 310, 311-13, 314-315
Cronje, Frans, 214
Crossland, Anthony, 225
Crowe, Ambassador Philip, 187-88
Cry, The Beloved Country (Paton), 103
Cuba: supports African liberation, 247; U.S. sanctions against, 211-12
Cuban troops: assists Angolan movement 268, 269
Cubans: on need to get out of Angola, 311
Curtis, Lionel, 13, 26, 29, 44
Dalton, Hugh, 131
Dar es Salaam, 166, 167
Davidson, Basil, 116
Davis, J. Merle, 70
Davis, Nathaniel, 267, 268
Dawson, Geoffrey, 44

Index 391

Dean, Arthur H., 201
Dean, Sir Patrick, 207
DeBeers, 10, 16
Declaration of Conscience against Apartheid, 134
"decolonization": as political compromise, 59
Defence Advisory Council, 287
Defence and Aid Fund, 134, 186
Defence White Paper of 1977, 284
Delgado, Humberto, 155, 158
Democratic Study Group on Africa, 280-81
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), 294
destabilization policy, 328
Détente, 252-59, 271-77, 306-13, 327-33
Devlin, Lawrence, 150
Diamonds, 15; importance of, 5; monopoly of, 16
Diamond Syndicate: Oppenheimer controls, 48; see also DeBeers
Diggs, Rep. Charles, 239, 257, 300
Dillon, Douglas, 144, 149
Dillon Read & Company, 163, 253
Dinizulu: and Zulu revolt, 32
Dirksen, Everett, 149
"discreet action," 39
discrimination: Leys on economic, 71; as part of segregation system, 25
disengagement: U.S. favors, 344
divestment: movement advances, 327; rise in, 337
Dodd, Thomas, 149
Dominion Party, 204
Douglas, Lewis W., 201
Douglas-Home, Sir Alec, 225, 235, 237
Dual Mandate (Lugard), 65
DuBois, W.E.B., 45, 65, 72, 108
Dulles, Allen, 107n, 145
Dulles, John Foster, 108, 134-35
Duncan, Patrick, 43, 89
Duncan, Sir Val, 226
Dunkelsbuhlers, 48
Dutch: early settlements of, 4; see also Afrikaners; Boers
Dutch Reformed Church, 57
Eagleburger, Lawrence, 328
Eastland, James, 149
Easum, Donald, 267
Economist, 223; supports sanctions, 348
economy: Afrikaner and the Bond, 91-93; and changing labor patterns, 83-89; relation of British to Southern Africa, 5-8, 12, 14; South African growth of, 49-50, 56
education: blacks charged for, 278; as way to advancement, 33
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 110
Electricity Supply Commission (ESCOM), 50
elite African: hope for, 63
Engelhard, Charles W., 73, 77, 189
entrepreneurs, 5
"É Preciso Plantar," 351
equality: Myrdal on American creed of, 135, 135n
Eritrea, 117
Erskine, General: on Kenyan economic needs, 121
Espírito Santo group, the, 233
Ethiopia: and International Court of Justice, 194, 196, 296
"Eurafrican" connection, 113
Eurodollar finance market, 231
Europe (continental), 4-14, 65-68, 113-18, 213-19, 228-32, 318-22
European Economic Community: on code for investors, 338; and Sullivan code, 288
Expansionism: failure of, South African, 46 Export Administration Act, 328
Export-Import Bank, 223, 224, 290
Fabian Society, 324
Fagan Commission on Native Laws, 85, 95, 100
farmers, 95-96, 100
Fauntroy, Walter, 335
FBI, 137-38
Federale Mynbou, 214
Federale Volksbelegging (FVB), 92, 93
Federated Chamber of Industries (FCI), 50, 87
Federation of Afrikaans Cultural Organizations (FAK), 91; Economic Institute of, 92
Feetham, Richard, 43
Ferguson, Clyde, 281
Field, Winston, 168
Fighters for a New World (Koch), 137
Fleming, Robert and Company, 73
Fluor Corporation, 279
FNLA, 162, 263-68
Foote Mineral, 238-39
Force Publique, 141
Ford, Gerald, 201
Foreign Affairs: on Congo independence, 115; on constructive engagement, 348, 348n; on reducing U.S. ties with Pretoria, 281; Welensky on African distrust, 113
Fortune magazine: on South Africa, 75
"founders shares," 17-18
Fourie, Japie, 56
France: anti-South African stance of, 323; arms sales to South Africa, 230; bans new investments, 338; economic ties to South Africa, 228-29

392 Index

franchise: limited Cape, 27; Rhodesian, 203
Fraser, Malcolm, 325
Fredericks, Wayne, 280
Free South Africa Movement, 306, 335
free trade: mineowners champion, 50; U.S. policy of, 108
"Free World": defining the, 105-10
FRELIMO: and Chinese, 246; and MFA, 262; and Mozambican independence, 263; New Year's message of, 220, 221; Soviet ties with, 246; and ZANU, 240
Freyre, Gilberto, 99
Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 322
Frontline states, 272, 274; bear heavy burden, 303; call for end to apartheid, 337, 337n; maintain consensus, 352; Nordic support for, 321
"fusion," political, 50
Garment Workers Union, 93
Garvey, Marcus, 65
Gaulle, Charles de, 228
Geldenhuys, Deon, 322
General Mining, 18, 214
General Motors, 255
Genscher, Hans-Dietrich, 323
George, Lloyd, 44
German Democratic Republic (GDR), 247
German East Africa, 39; see also Tanganyika
German Federal Republic: assists South Africa, 279-80; investments in South Africa, 230-31; varying views of on Africa, 322-23
German-Transvaal axis, 9, 11
Gesuiverde (Purified) Nationalist Party (G/NP), 90
Ghana: as first African independent nation, 181; independence for, 115; see also Gold Coast
Gandhi, Mohandas, 33, 60, 127
Giliomee, Herman, 287
Gizenga, Antoine, 147, 147n
Gladstone, Lord, 60
Glen Grey Act, 24
Gleneagles agreement of 1977, 325
Godley, McMurtrie, 151
Goerz, A., 18
gold: and Western European economy, 229-32; as international monetary basis, 5; South African industry in, 17-19; South African in world market, 231; two tier system of, 229
Gold fields, 11, 18, 74
gold mines: capital sources of, 48-49; investment in, 75-76; new mining techniques in, 76
gold standard: country abandons, 49
Goldberg, Arthur, 197
Goldfinger (Fleming), 73
Goldwater, Barry, 149
Good, Robert, 207
Good Offices Committee for international status of South West Africa, 125, 193-94
Goodman, Lord, 239
Goschen, George, 12
Graaff, Sir de Villiers, 183
Great Britain: as world financial center, 5, 11, 17; see also British Empire; Commonwealth
"Great Depression," 8; and market in gold, 49
"Green Bay Tree, The," 223
Grigg, Edward, 44
Griqua people, 9
Griqualand West: diamonds in, 8-9
Gross, Ernest A., 194-95
Group Areas Act of 1950, 97
Guevara, Che, 247
Guinea-Bissau: achieves independence, 236; guerrilla advances in, 236; guerrilla war in, 156
Guingand, Sir Francis de, 182, 183; on U.S. shift, 222
Gulf Oil Company: supports MPLA, 270
Gullion, Ambassador, 151
Gunther, John, 115, 116
Haggard, Rider, 3-4
Haig, Alexander, 311, 313, 315
Halley, Lord, 71-72, 111, 118
Halberstarn, David, 152
Hammarskjold, Dag, 144
Hammond, John Hays, 10, 107n
Hancock, W.K., 111-12
Harare, 327
Harcourt, Lord, 60
Harper, William, 204
Harriman, Averell, 146, 195, 201, 202
Harris, J.H.69
Hauge, Gabriel, 201
Havenga, Finance Minister, 132
Hayakawa, S.I.: election of, 300
Heath, Edward, 225, 227, 237
Helms, Jesse, 300, 310
Hempstone, Smith, 149
Herenigde (Reunited) National Party (HNP), 90
Herero: repression of, 32
Hermes Kredit-Versicherungs AG, 279-80
Hertzog, J.H., 42, 45, 50
Hichens, Lionel, 44
High Commission territories: British control over, 14; colonial regulation of, 67; see also Basutoland; Bechuanaland; Swaziland
Hilton Young Commission, 71

Index 393

Hobson, J.A., 11, 35
Ho Chi Minh, 45
Hochschild, Harold and Walter, 201
Hoernle, Alfred, 63
Hofmeyer, Jan H., 64, 104-05n
"Hoggenheimers," 74
Honnold, William, 48
Hoover, Herbert, 48
Hottentots, 4
Hough, Dr. Mike, 317
Houghton, Hobart, 79, 213
Houphouet-Boigny, F., 230
Houser, George, 134
Huddleston, Trevor, 130
Huggins, Sir Geoffrey, 112
Huileries du Congo Belge, 54
Hull, H.C., 48
"Humanism," Kaunda's, 172
Huntington, Samuel, 312
Huxley, Elspeth, 111
Have A Dream (King), 138
immigration: European to South Africa, 74, 75, 77, 78
imperial creed: and role of Commonwealth, 38
"imperial federation": concept of, 44
Imperialism (Hobson), 11
imperialism: Paton questions ideology of British, 105
imperialists, 5-8, 55-59, 69
Imvo Zabantsundu (African Opinion), 33
income levels: among South African workers, 101
independence: readiness for, 111-12
India, 5, 110
Indian Ocean: Nixon-Heath on, 227; Soviet threat in, 226
Indians: expelled by law, 97; passive resistance of, under Ghandi, 70; prejudice against, 95; pre-WWII protests of, 59
Indfgenas, 99
IndoChina: U.S. focus on, 228
Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICU), 61
Industrial Conciliation Act (1924), 58
Industrial Conciliation Act (1959), 203
Industrial Development Corporation (IDC), 79, 189, 213
influx control system: economic role of, 213-14
"informal empire," 8
injustice: removal of not Liberal aim, 62
Inside Africa (Gunther), 115, 116
Institute for International Economics: on success rate of sanctions, 349
International Court of Justice: and complaint against apartheid, 194, 196, 198
International Missionary Council, 64, 70
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 190, 229, 279, 327
International Olympic Committee (IOC), 252-53
investment: in Portuguese colonies, 163; in Southern Africa, 77-78, 101-02, 215-16
Investor Responsibility Research Center, 256
Iron and Steel Corporation: South African, 50; see ISCOR
"irrational restrictions": apartheid system's, 88-89
Isandhlawana: Zulu victory at, 9
ISCOR, 50, 79
Israel, 292, 320-21
Jabavu, Tengo, 33
Japan, 321
Jardim, Jorge, 168-69
Ja Toivo, Herman, 198, 332
Jepsen, Roger, 300
Jessup, Philip C., 194
Job Reservation Act of 1926, 58
Johannesburg Chamber of Commerce, 85
Johannesburg Stock Exchange, 17, 47
Johnson, Bernice: see Reagon, Bernice J.
Johnson, Lyndon B., 151
Johnstone, Frederick, 22
Joint Councils of Europeans and Natives, 62, 64
Jonathan, Chief Leabua and SNP, 174-75; coup against, 340
Jones, Jesse, 108
Jorge, Paulo, 318
Kadalie, Clements, 61
Kaffir (African), 11; market, 17, 17n
"Kairos Document," 341
Kalahari: nuclear test at planned, 295
Kariba hydroelectric plant, 169
Kasai province: revolt in, 69
Kasavubu, President, 145
Katanga, 14; copper mines in, 19; a ; independent, 141, 147-50; labor mobil,zation in, 51-52; Western policies on, 147-50; see also Shaba province
Kaunda, Kenneth: on arms sales, 226, 227; and détente in Rhodesia, 272; and international consensus on southern Africa, 170; and Nixon, 228; on oil shipments, 211; and Pompidou, 230
Keita, Modibo, 246
Kennan, George, 116, 222
Kennecott Copper Corporation, 76-77

394 Index

Kennedy, Edward, 258
Kennedy, John F., 115, 146
Kennedy liberals, 138
Kenya, 71, 166-67; policymakers on independence of, 111-12; settler-imperial alliance in, 69; Western image of, 119-20; White Paper on, 66
Kenyan African Union, 118-19
Kenyatta, Jomo, 118-19, 122, 166
Kerr, Philip, 44; and African Survey, 71; on American responsibility, 39
Khama, Seretse, 131-32, 175, 274
Khama, Tshekedi, 131
Khoikhoi herdspeople, 4
Khoisan peoples, 4; see also Bushmen; Hottentots
Kieffer, Donald de, 310
Kikuyu: lead Kenyan revolt, 118-19
Kimbangu, Simon: movement of, 68-69
Kimberley Central Diamond Mining Company, 16
Kindergarten: influence of Milner's, 43-44
King, Martin Luther, 137-38, 256
King Solomon's Mines (Haggard), 3
Kirkpatrick, Jeanne, 310
Kissinger, Henry, 219; African diplomacy of, 49, 271-75; on aid to Portugal, 262; committee of, 266, 268; and ignorance of African affairs, 221; on Namibian constitutional conference, 294; as peacemaker, 274-75; recommendations of for Portugal, 234
Koch, Thilo, 137
Koinange, Mbiyu, 122
Kolwezi: FLNC capture, 297
Kruger, President, 10
Krugerrand: ban on sale of, 337, 338
labor: apartheid's regulation of stream of, 96; as corollary of apartheid, 254-55; decline in influence of, 58; flow of, 51-54; migratory, 51; relaxation of restrictions on, 285; role of, in industrial development, 83-89; shortage of, 9, 11, 22-25; sources of, 29-30
labor control: post-slavery, 21
labor mobilization: Katangan form of, 51-52
labor repression: and idustrialization, 84
Labour Party (South African), 57
Lagden, Geoffrey, 26
Lake, Anthony, 223,131
Land: appropriation of as native control, 24; disposition of in Rhodesia, 28; native bills control occupation of, 58; South Africans deprived of, 52-54: Southern Rhodesian divided, 69-70
Land Apportionment Act of 1930, 69
Land Freedom Army, 119; 120-21
Landis, Elizabeth, 242
Lange, David, 325
Lazards Bank, 44
Leadership Code: Zambia's, 172
League of Nations, 38; and increase of colonial influence, 46
Legislative Council: Northern Rhodesian, 70
Legum, Colin and Margaret, 191
Legum, Colin: on Mau Mau, 122
Leopoldville: U.S. aids government of, 147-50, 151-54; see also Belgian Congo, Zaire
Lesotho: independence of, 173-76; see also Basutoland
Leys, Colin: on economic discrimination, 71
Leys, Norman, 71, 72
Liberal Party, 130, 184
liberalism: tradition of British, 128
Liberals: attitude of toward Africans, 34-35; and black elite, 61-65; influence of, 36; on migratory labor, 35
Liberal, left; see Radicals
Liberia, 117, 194, 196
Liga Africana, 67
Lipton, Merle, 312
Lonrho Corporation, 273
Lorain, C.T., 62-63
Lothian, Lord: see Kerr, Philip
Louis, W.A., 109
Lourenço Marques, 78, 263
Louw, M.S., 92
Luanda (Angola), 266, 268
Luce, Richard, 325
Luke, W.E., 186
Lumumba, Patrice, 139-46
Luns, Joseph, 235
Lusaka, Zambia, 271
Lusaka Manifesto (1969): and struggle for freedom, 177, 248, 249
lusotropicalism, 99
Luthuli, Albert, 127-28, 130
Machel, Samora, 274, 329, 332
Macleod, kin, 122, 123, 165
McCloy, John, 201
McFarlane, Robert, 311
McGoff, John, 286
McGovern, George, 250
McHenry, Donald, 255, 281, 294
McLellan, David, 133
Macmillan, Harold, 122, 123, 165, 185-87, 207
Macmillan, W.M., 21, 63-64
McRae, Norman, 223
Macrone, 1.D., 186
Mahereru, Frederick, 125

Index 395

majority rule: business view of, 347
Makonnen, Endalkachew, 195
Malan, Magnus, 284
Malawi: independence of, 167-72; see also Nyasaland
Malcolm, Dougal, 44
Malozemoff, Plato, 200
Mandela, Nelson, 193, 306, 353
Mandela, Winnie, 335
manufacturing: growth of, 74, 79-83; post-WWII, 101
manufacturers: and Pact government, 50
Mapondera: revolutionary efforts of, 31
Maputo: Mozambican leadership of, 328-29
Marcum, John, 269
Maree, Johan, 286
Marks, J.B., 126
Marks, Shula, 32-33
Maseru, Lesotho, 328
Mashonaland, 18
Mason, Philip, 113
Master-Servant Act of 1901 (Rhodesian), 27
Matabeleland, 18, 327
Matthews, Z.K., 175, 250
Mau Mau, 118-23
Mboya, Tom, 122
Meyer, Andre, 201
migrant labor: Fagan Commission on, 85; system, 24-25
migrant workers: strike in Namibia, 243
Military Assistance Program (MAP): 159, 160
military power, 32-33
Milner, Alfred, 10-13, 24, 39-42
"Milner's Kindergarten," 13, 26; see also Kindergarten
mineral production: British and U.S. control of, 47
minerals: importance of African to West, 117
mines, control of, 15-20
"mining houses," 17
mining industry: black/white wages in, 24; need for cheap labor, 23-24; technical advances in, 47; strikes in, 60, 70, 86-87 missionary: Davis on role of, 70
Mitchell, Sir Philip, 111, 119
Mitterand, Francois, 323
MNR: arms to be supplied by South Africa, 332; limitations of, 330; see also Mozambique National Resistance
Mobutu, 145; corrupt regime of, 344; repulses rebels, 296; and Roberto's FNLA, 263, 266-68; second coup of, 153; U.S. backs, 148, 150, 151-53, 296; Zaire under government of, 153
Modern Industry and'the African (Davis), 70
Mogadishu Declaration of 1971, 273
Mokhehle, Ntsu, 174
Mondale, Walter, 281, 282-83
Monday Club, 186-87
Mondlane, Edwardo, 68, 221, 250
Moniz, Dotelho, 158n
Moore, Robin, 260
Moose, Richard, 281
Moreira, Adriano, 155
Morel, E.D., 30
Morgan Grenfell, 48
Morgan, J.P. and Company, 48
Morganthau, Hans, 118
Morris, Roger, 223, 238
Morse, Wayne: on Lumumba, 146
Mozambique, 14; Banda ties with, 169; effect of Nkomati Accord in, 331-32; expels U,S. diplomats, 314; exports miners, 29; FRELIMO guerrillas in, 236; French economic pact with, 323; guerrilla war in, 156; independence of, 263; labor laws in, 54; Portuguese attack, 235; Portuguese financial groups in, 233; rebellion in, 68; struggle in, 330; U.S. supports rebels in, 339 Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), 156, 166-67
Mozambique National Resistance (MNR), 328
MPLA, 236, 246, 263-71
Mugabe, Robert, 274, 302-04
Mulder, Connie, 286
"Muldergate," 286
Muldoon, Robert, 325
"multifacialism," 346
Multinationals, industry and, 79-83
"multiracialism," 121-22
Must We Lose Africa (Legum), 122
Muzorewa, Bishop Abel, 239, 298, 300, 302
Myrdal, Gunnar, 135, 135n
Nama: repression of, 31
Namibia (South West Africa), 28, 124-25, 193-202, 240-44, 292-97
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 188
National Conference on South African Crisis and American Action, 180
National Party: apartheid ideology of, 98; economic policies of, 56; electoral victories of, 85-86; espouses neo-apartheid, 285; Hertzog forms, 55-56; Hertzog leads, 42; ideology in, 343; 1948 victory of, 93; protects white workers, 96; reaction of to direct action, 127; wins political power, 75
National Security Action Memorandum 295, 195-96
National Security Council (NSC), 145, 219, 223
National Socialism, 90
National Student Christian Federation, 253
National Trustee Council (NAT), 93
Native Administration Act (1927), 61
"Native Bills" (1936, 1937), 58-59

396 Index

Native Land Act of 1913, 27, 53, 59-60
Native Laws Amendment of 1952, 97
Native Life in South Africa (Plaatje), 60
"native policy": economic results of, 95-96
Native Recruiting Corporation, 24
Native Representative Council, 58, 98
Natives (Abolition of Passes and Coordination of Documents) Act of 1952, 97
Natives (Urban Areas) Amendment Act of 1955, 97
natives: place of in postwar South Africa, 83; Smuts on place of, 84
Naudé, Beyers, 335
Naught for Your Comfort (Huddleston), 134
Ndebele: defeat of, 31
negotiations: as basis for change in South Africa, 273
Neo-apartheid, 285-87
Netherlands, the: solidarity of, with South Africa, 251
Neto, Agostinho, 154, 235-36, 263-71, 274
Nevinson, Henry, 30
New Order Study Circle, 90
New York Times: on apartheid, 124
Newmont Mining Corporation, 49, 77, 199, 200, 201, 242-43
Newsom, David, 224, 225, 234
Ngwane National Liberatory Congress (NNLC), 174
Nicholls, Heaton, 131
Nickel, Herman, 340
Nigeria: oil boom in, 240-41
Nixon, Richard, 222
Nkomati Accord, 331
Nkomo, Joshua, 204, 206, 240
Nkrumah, Kwame, 146, 171, 246
Nogueira, Franco, 211, 234
non-Europeans: exclusion of rights of, 38
nonviolence: as protest technique, 127
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 113-18, 159, 162-63
Northern Rhodesia: control of copper mines in, 49; defection of, 123; pattern of labor use in, 52; settlers in Legislative Council, 70; see also Zambia
NSSM39, 220, 222-23
NSSM89, 242
nuclear capacity: South African, 292, 295
Nujoma, Sam, 194
Nyadzonia: attack on camp at, 276
Nyasaland: defection of, 123; local agriculture in,53-54; native protest in, 66-67; as source of labor, 51; see also Malawi
Nyerere, Julius, 166-67, 226, 227
Obote, Milton, 226, 227
Odendaal commission, 195-96
Odinga, Oginga, 122
oil companies: and evasion of sanctions in Rhodesia, 209-11, 209n
oil embargo, 290-91
Oldham, J.H., 64-65, 71
Olivier, Lord Sidney, 23, 36, 72
Operation Anvil: and Kenyan revolt, 119
Operation Gordian Knot, 235
Operation Protea, 315
Ophir: land of, 3, 3n
Oppenheimer, Ernest, 16, 48-49, 100
Oppenheimer, Harry, 74-75, 170; backs Progressive Party, 181; as Botha spokesman, 287; on economic cooperation, 225; as leader of white opposition, 130-31; meets with President Johnson, 200; on multiracial society, 85, 86; on reforms needed, 183-84; and South Africa Foundation, 182
Orange Free State, 5, 49, 60
Organization for African Unity (OAU), 152, 166, 193, 226, 227, 264
Ossewa Brandwag (OB), 90
Ovamboland: export of migrant workers from, 28-29; separate tribal government in, 241; workers deported to, 243; see also Namibia
Owen, David, 283
Oxwagon Sentinels: see Ossewa Brandwag
Pact government: and local industry, 50; and white poverty, 57
Padmore, George, 65, 72
PAIGC, 235, 236, 262; Soviet ties with, 246; see also Cabral, Amilcar
Palabora Mine, 189, 216-17
Palley, Claire, 208, 237
Pan-African Congress, 45, 67-68
Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa (PAFMECA) and Southern (PAFMECSA), 166
Pan-African movement, 65
Pan-Africanist Congress, 128-29, 182 parallel development: as Rhodesian racial policy, 100
pass laws, 24; as economic factor, 214; flawed reform of, 333; National Party strengthens, 97
Paton, Alan, 103-05, 104-05n
Patriotic Front: and Rhodesian election, 299, 300, 302-03
Pearce, Lord, 52-54, 84, 239-40
Pereira, José de Fontes, 33
Perham, Margery, 110-11, 165
Perry, Peter, 29
Petersen, Hector, 277
Phelps Stokes Fund, 64, 71, 108
Philip, John, 63
Philippines: as self-governing, 109

Index 397

Phillips, Ray, 62
Piao, Lin, 246
Pilgrim's Way (Buchan), 38n
Pim, Sir Alan, 67
Pim, Howard, 63
Pirow, Oscar, 58
Plaatje, Solomon, 60
platinum: mining of, 19
pneumonia vaccine: effect of, 51
Podgorny, N.V., 282
Polaroid, 255
political maturity: varying definitions of, 111
political power: black exclusion from, 14, 23
Pompidou, Georges, 228
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), 154, 155, 162
"population groups": in Namibian interim government, 293, 294
portfolio capital: changes in, 80
Portugal and the Future (Spínola), 262
Portuguese colonialism (Angola and Mozambique), 29-30, 67-68, 99, 113-18, 153-64, 232-36, 261-70, 325-31
Portuguese Communist Party, 262
Portuguese Liberation Army, 267
Portuguese Socialist Party, 262
Poverty Datum Line: and black workers, 258
"power sharing," 306, 308, 322
Precious Metals Corporation, 73
President's Council: and new constitution, 333
Press Holdings, 168
Prester John (Buchan), 37
Pretoria: see South Africa
Programme to Combat Racism (Special Fund), 250-51
Progressive Federal Party, 336; formation of, 286
"progressive force" theory: Sullivan code as version of, 289
Progressive Party (S.A.): moderate reform policy of, 181; agree on white leadership, 184
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, 98
protesters: African from 1890 on, 33-36
"Quadri-racial Policy," 312
Question of Power, A, 256-59
Quina group, the, 233
"race adjustment": theory of, 70
racism: international WCC combats, 249-51; Latin approach to, 67; structures of, 20-30; among U.S. businesspeople in South Africa, 254
radicals: attitude of toward Africans, 35
railways: link mines to ports, 18-19, 20
Randall, Clarence, 18, 189
Randlords, 10-13
Rand Mines, 77
Rand Revolt, 42
Ranger, Terence, 69
Raphael, Adam, 254
Raubwirtschaft (robbery economy), 30
Reagan, Ronald: African Policy of, 310-40; shifts to sanctions, 338-39; U.S.-South African policy of, 306-07
Reagan, Bernice Johnson, 260-61
Realpolitik approach, 310, 311, 316
recruitment: of migratory labor, 24-25
Red Rubber (Morel), 30
Registration Act (1887), 33
Reid, Escott, 114
Relly, Gavin, 347
Report from Southern Africa (Davidson), 11:6
repression: as response to South African resistance, 59
Rescue Fund, 92
Reservations: system of as part of segregation, 25
reserves: Bantustan plan for, 181, 184; as native place, 96-97; Pim on, 26-27; subsistence rates in, 181
Rhodes, Cecil, 10-12, 15; and diamond monopoly, 16; and imperial creed, 38; scholarships, 38; and white victory in Rhodesia, 31; will of, 38
Rhodes Trust, 71; and Kindergarten, 44; support of liberals, 64
Rhodesia: closes Zambian border, 240; effect of Portuguese coup on, 272; efforts of to become independent, 202-13; mining in, 18-19; native policy theory of, 100; 1969 constitution of, 237-41; press coverage of, 299n; relations of with South Africa, 293, 298; white supremacy in, 99; see also Northern Rhodesia; Southern Rhodesia; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Rhodesia (Moore), 260
Rhodesian Front, 168, 202, 205
Rhodesian Information Office, 238, 239
Rhodesian Native Labour Bureau (RNLB), 27-28
Rhodesian Selection Trust, 19
Rinderpest epidemic, 28, 29
Rio Tinto Zinc (RTZ), 216-17, 218
Riotous Assembly Act of 1930, 61
Rivers, Bernard, 209n
Robert, Holden: on American policy, 159; and FNLA, 263-68; and UPA party, 154; U.S. aid to, 161
Robeson, Paul, 133
Robinson, G: see Dawson, Geoffrey
Robinson, Randall, 335
Roche, John P., 137

398 Index

Rossing Uranium Mine, 244
Rothschild banking family, 16, 17
Round Table movement, 44
Rowland, Roland, "Tiny:" of Lonrho, 170; as matchmaker, 273
Royal Institute of International Affairs, 44
Ruanda-Urundi, 46
Ruark, Robert, 120
Rubusana, Rev. Walter, 33
rulers, rightful, 38-46
Rupert, Anton, 79, 214
rural areas: as social security backup, 52
Rush, Kenneth, 238
Rusk, Dean, 149, 151
Ryckmans, Pierre: on Congo independence, 115
SADCC, 314; countries, 344; and regional economic cooperation, 352; see Southern Africa Development Coordination Conference
Salazar, António, 45, 67-68, 116, 157-58, 232
Salisbury: see Rhodesia
sanctions: arguments concerning, 191-93; controversy over, 336-37; effect on in Rhodesia, 212-13; opposition to, 348; Rhodesia, 238-41; on Rhodesian trade, 209; U.S. and British stand on, 197-98; violations of by U.S. companies, 276
Sanlam (insurance company), 56; and the Bond, 92
Santam (insurance company), 56
Santos, Eduardo dos, 323
Santos, Marcelino dos: poem of, 351
Satterthwaite, Joseph, 202
Sauer commission: findings of, 94, 95
Savimbi, Jonas, 235, 263, 268, 317-18
Scandinavia: and African liberation, 344; presence of in Africa, 249
Schneider, General René, 228
Schreiner, Olive, 31
Schreiner, W.Pä 33
Scott, David: on British-South African relations, 283-84; as epitome of dual allegiance, 343
Scott, Michael, 125
Scott, Stuart Nash, 267
Sears, John, 310
Second Anglo-Boer War, 10-12, 13, 14
"Second War of Independence": Angola's, 264-71
segregation: apartheid stance on residential, 96; apartheid as updated system of, 94; constructive Hofmeyr on, 64; politics of, 25-27; protests against laws governing, 60-61; as system of racial control, 25; U.S. Supreme Court decision on, 132
Selborne, Lord, 13
Selborne memorandum: on British mandate in South Africa, 44
Selection Trust, 49
self-determination: as long-range goal for colonies, 109-10
Sena Sugar, 54, 78; protest songs from, 68
Sengier, Edgar Edouard, 116
Sentrachem: as Afrikaner enterprise, 214, 217
Shaba province (Zaire): rebellion in, 296
Shamva (mine): strike at, 70
Sharpeville massacre, 179, 180-84
Shepstone: on labor shortage, 9
Shona, 4; defeat of, 31
Shultz, George, 311
Simonstown agreements, 226
slaves, early use of, 4
Smith, Ian, 168, 202-03, 205, 207-08, 274-75, 298-301
Smith, Tim, 254
Smuts, General Jan C., 13, 39-43, 45, 50, 103-04, 124-25, 342
Soares, Mário: and Portuguese Socialist Party, 267
Sobhuza, King of Swaziland, 174
Social Democratic Party, 324
Societe Generale de Belgique, 49, 78
Society, South African: basic structure of, 27 Soldier of Fortune magazine, 276
Something of Value (Ruark), 120
South Africa: aggression of, 327; and Angolan reactionaries, 268-69; attacks on refugee camp, 295-96; Banda's ties with, 169; British plans for, 39-46; British ties to, 187, 187n; economic aid from U.S., 318-19; effect of sanctions on, 349-51; escalates Namibian repression, 297; expands economy in region, 218-19; in the "Free World," 131-36; High Commission territories customs agreement with, 176; increasing economic weakness of, 329-30; military might expanding, 218-19; post-WWII changes in, 102; and separate governments in Namibia, 241-42; ties of, with British elite, 43; whites as ruling class in, 38; joins Zambia in détente, 272
South Africa Anglo Transvaal Company, 77
South Africa-British Trade Association (SABRITA), 225
South Africa: Crisis for the West (Legum), 191
South Africa Defense Force, 284
South Africa Foundation, 182, 184, 186, 222, 230-31, 325
South African Broadcasting Company on Reagan, 315

Index 399

South African Council of Churches, 249, 337
South African Defence Force, 345
South African Indian Congress, 126
South African Indian Council, 97
South African Institute of Race Relations, 62, 64
South African Native Affairs, 23, 26
South African Native National Congress, 59-60; see also African National Congress (ANC)
South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC), 252
South African Party, 39
South African Police, 218
South African Political Science Association, 312
South African Politics, 20-27, 54-59, 89-98, 123-30, 180-85, 276-92
South African Reserve Bank, 56, 186
South African Sports Association, 252
South African Students Organization (SASO), 258
South African Trust Fund, 76
South African Union Corporation, 201
Southern Africa Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), 314
South West Africa: Britain conquers, 39; incorporated into South Africa, 44-45; international status of, 124-26; see also Namibia
South West Africa Company, 199
South West African People's Organization (SWAPO), 194; see also SWAPO
Soviet Union, 105-06, 144, 145, 148, 246, 267-69, 314, 344, 345-46
Soweto, 97, 277, 278
Spaak, Paul-Henri, 148, 151
Space Research Corporation (SRC), 291-92
Spence, J.E., 226
Spender, Sir Percy, 196
Spínola, General António, 235, 262
sports boycott: results of, 252-53
Sprague, Charles A., 133
"Squatters": rent payers as, 53
Stallard, C.F., 95
Stallard commission, 95
Standard Bank, 56
Stanleyville: attack on, 152-53
State Security Council (SSC), 286
Stevenson, Adlai, 139
Stockwell, John, 265-66
Strauss, Franz-Joseph, 323
Struelens, Michel, 149
student groups: protest economic support of apartheid, 253-56
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, 253
Students for a Democratic Society, 253
Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward South Africa: recommendations of, 308-09
subsidies: government to white farmers, 52-54
Suez Canal, 5
Sullivan, Leon: code of, 287-88, 290
Suppression of Communism Act, 93
Supreme Council for Sport, 252
Suzman, Helen, 181
SWAPO: and attack on refugee camp, 295-96; and Chinese, 246; conference of on Namibia, 241; guerrilla attacks of, 198; guerrilla capacity of, 309; Nordic countries support, 321; organize Namibian efforts, 243-44; political credibility of, 330; recognized by UN, 293-94; Soviet ties with, 246; see also South West Africa People's Organization
Swaziland, 9, 45, 53, 173-76
Sweden, 321
Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), 249
Sweet Honey in the Rock (Reagon), 260, 261
Tancos Air Force base: sabotage at, 236
Tanganyika: under British control, 46; see also Tanzania
Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), 160
Tanganyika Concessions Company (Tanks), 19, 49
Tanzania: and Frontline presidents, 274; as independent country, 166-67; multiracial franchise in, 165; Nyerere, 267; recognize Angolan independence, 269
Tanzania Zambia railway (Tazara), 170, 246
Tarzan Escapes, 119-20
Tempelsman, Maurice, 150
Terrorism Act (1967), 198
textile industry: as Britain's leading, 5; tariffs protect, 50
Thatcher, Margaret: and Rhodesian election, 302-03
Third World: influence of in WCC, 250; support African nations, 246-48; viewed as threat, 302
Thirty-Nine Steps, The (Buchan), 39
Thomas, Franklin, 308
Thomson, Commonwealth Secretary, 211
Thuku, Harry, 71
tire industry: South African, 82
Tito, Josip, 247
Toivo, Toivo ja: see Ja Toivo, Herman
Tomáz, Américo, 234
Tomlinson commission, 98
Tool and Stainless Steel Committee, 239

400 Index

Torch Commando, 130
Touré, Sékou, 235, 246
Towsey, Kenneth, 238
trade: impact of Commonwealth on British, 46; increase in South African, 77; South Africa's, 216
trade unions: and black leaders, 61-62; recognition of postponed, 87-88; white membership in declines, 57
TransAfrica, 280
Transkei: protests in, 180, 182
Transvaal Republic, 9, 10-11; 33; see also Boers
Treason Trial, 180
Treurnicht, Andries, 333
"Tribal Trust Land" areas, 240
Tricontinental Secretariat: 1966 conference of, 247
Trilateral Commission: influence of, 281; on intervention, 270
Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland (Schreiner), 31
Trudeau, Pierre, 325
Truman, Harry, 132
Tshombe, Moise, 141, 144, 147-50, 151-53
Tsumeb Corporation, 199
Tsumeb Mine, 242-43
Tswana people, 4, 9, 287
Tunisia, 115
Tunney, John, 269, 300
Tutu, Bishop Desmond, 335
Tweedsmuir, Lord: see Buchan, John
two pyramid policy, 100
UAL: as largest merchant bank, 217
uitlanders (foreigners), 10
UK-South Africa Trade Association (UKSATA), 225, 325
Umkhonto we Sizwe, 193
Ungar, Sanford, 348n
Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI): Rhodesian, 170, 202
Union Carbide Corporation: and Rhodesian exports, 238-39
Union Constitution of 1910, 130
Union Department of Mines and Industries, 57
Union Miniere du Haut-Katanga, 19, 49, 51-52
Union of the Peoples of Angola (UPA), 154,155
Union of South Africa, 13-14, 89-90; see also South Africa
unionist imperialists: attitude of toward Africans, 34
Unionist Party, 39
UNITA, 235, 263-65, 268, 296-97, 317, 340
United Democratic Front (UDF), 203, 306, 334
United Federal Party, 203
UN: British obtain condemnation of apartheid in, 183; condemn apartheid, 183; in Congo, 144-45; and human rights in South Africa, 103-04; and question of race conflict in South Africa, 134; resolution on sanctions for South Africa, 193 and South West Africa, 124-26
UN Council for Namibia, 241, 242
UN Decolonization Committee: U.S. and Britain withdraw from, 248-49
UN General Assembly: supports sanctions, 347
UN Security Council: on Angolan reforms, 158, 161; condemns Smith's regime, 237; condemns South African raids, 315, 340; inquiry into Angola, 154-55; on Namibia, 199; and oil sanctions in Rhodesia, 210-11; resolutions on arms embargo, 289; revokes South African mandate over Namibia, 241
United Party: agree on white leadership, 184; and Coloureds, 97-98; and disenfranchisement of Africans, 58-59; and Indians, 97; and "native bills," 55; 1959 policies of, 181; pre-WWII dominance of, 89
United States, 105-10, 130-36, 187-91, 193-202, 220-58, 259-83, 292-303, 309-18, 324-40
U.S. Board of Economic Warfare, 113-15 U.S. companies, 190
U.S. Department of Commerce, 82-83 U.S. Export-Import Bank, 77
U.S.-South Africa Leadership Exchange, 189 Unity Movement of South Africa, 129
uranium: European investment in South African, 244; South African-German develop enriched, 231; as vital asset in Congo, 144, 116
Urban Foundation, 285-86
urban workers: Rhodesian, 100-01
Vale, Peter, 348n
Vance, Cyrus, 281, 295
Van Dusen, Henry P., 190
Van Eck, H.J., 189
Vereeniging, Treaty of, 13-14
verkrampte (far right): as wing of National Party, 333
verligte (reformist), 285, 286
Versailles, Treaty of, 44-46
Verwoerd, Hendrik, 181, 184, 185, 186, 201-02
Viljoen, Constand, 340
Villiers, Marquard de, 273

Index 401

Viner, Jacob, 108-09
Yolk: role of, in the Bond, 91
Volkseenheid, 91
Volkskas (people's bank), 92
Volkskongres: economic, 92
Von Trotha, 31
Vorster, Johannes, 90, 169, 253, 271-72, 282, 283, 286
voting rights: Cape Colony franchise on, 13; Kenyan constitution on, 121-22; Union constitution on, 14
Wisner, Frank, 313
Witwatersrand reef: gold in, 17
women: as trade union members, 90
Woolf, Leonard, 72
workers: for mine, farm, and factory, 51-54
World Bank, 117, 190
World Council of Churches (WCC), 249-51
World Court, 125, 241
World War II (WWII): impact of on South Africa, 128-29
Wyndham, Hugh, 43
wages: black and white, 214
Waldheim, Kurt, 244
Wall, Patrick, 226
Walls, Peter, 276
Walters, Vernon, 328
Walton, Richard, 350
Wankie (mine): strike at, 70
Washington, Booker T., 33
Washington Office on Africa, 257
Welensky, Roy, 113
Wernher, Beit and Company, 18; see also Corner House
Werner, Julius, 12, 15
Wessels, Albert, 217
West: dominant role of in Southern Africa, 248; role of, 353
white Africans: as British allies, 39
White Citizens Council: in U.S., 132
white miners, 52
white poverty, 57
white supremacy, 28
Whitehead, Sir Edgar, 203-4
whites: nonruling class, rights of, 72
Whitlam, Gough, 325
Wiehahn Commission, 333
Williams, G. Mennen, 146, 160, 161, 162, 189, 205-06
Williams, Robert, 19, 49
Wilson, Harold, 197, 205-08
Wilson, Woodrow, 45
Windhoek: massacre at, 194
Wiriyamu: slaughter at, 251
Xhosa, 4, 5
Xhosa-speaking Africans, 287
Young, Andrew, 261, 281, 282, 289
Young Kikuyu Association, 71
Young Pioneers, 169
Yugoslavia: sympathy of with African nations, 247
Zaire (Congo), 68, 113-18, 139-51; see also Belgian Congo
Zambezi region, 54, 68
Zambia, 167-172, 169-72, 240; see also Northern Rhodesia
ZANU, 240, 274, 298
Zanzibar joins Tanganyika, 166-67
ZAPU: extends guerrilla activities, 240; guerrilla raids of, 298; joins with ZANU, 274; Soviet ties with, 246
Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), 27-28, 68-69, 99-101, 202-13, 236-40, 270-76, 297-303
Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), 206
Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), 206
Zulus, 4, 5, 9, 32

Up to King Solomon's Mines Revisited home page

King Solomon's Mines Revisited:
Western Interests and the
Burdened History of Southern Africa

by William Minter.
New York: Basic Books, 1986

Front Matter html|pdf (291K)
1: The Lion's Share: Britain and Southern Africa, 1870-1910 html|pdf (1.6M)
2: A Greater South Africa: White Power in the Region, 1910-1940 html|pdf (1.7M)
3: Buying In: British, Afrikaners, and Americans, 1940-1960 html|pdf (1.4M)
4: Containing the Rising Tide: Race and Self-Determination, 1940-1960 html|pdf (1.6M)
5: The Limits of Cold War Liberalism: Colonial Southern Africa in the Sixties html|pdf (2M)
6: The Shadow of Sharpeville: The West and White-Minority Rule in the Sixties html|pdf (2M)
7: "The Whites Are Here to Stay,": Southern Africa in the Nixon-Kissinger Era html|pdf (1.9M)
8: A Luta Continua: Intervention and Crisis Management, 1974-1980 html|pdf (2.2M)
9: Letting Time Run Out: The Shape of Engagement in the Reagan Era html|pdf (1.8M)
Conclusion html|pdf (600K)
Bibliography, Notes, and Index html|pdf (2.3M)

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